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Substitution reaction

Substitution in Chemistry: Reactions and Mechanisms.




Substitution is a chemical reaction in chemistry, in which atoms or atomic groups of a molecule are replaced by other atoms or atomic groups. Apart from the substitution reaction, the addition reactions, elimination reactions and rearrangements are fundamental reaction types of organic chemistry.

In general, three different types of exchange reactions are distinguished: the electrophilic, the nucleophilic and the free-radical substitution. The distinction criterion is the nature of the so-called attacking atoms or molecules; electrophilic reactants have an electron deficiency and react with molecular members which have an electron excess (for example, free electron pairs, partially charged groups, etc.). Electron-rich units attack electropositve sites in nucleophilic substitution. Radical substitution reactions are initiated by atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons (radicals). The unit newly introduced into a molecule is referred to as a substituent, the exchanged as the leaving group.

The following list contains online information on substitution reactions in chemistry and its mechanisms.



Content, Topics


Lecture Notes, Tutorials
Special Information
Compound Classes
Dissertations



Lecture Notes, Tutorials


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Substituent Effects: Orientation

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Substituent Effects: Relative Reactivities

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution, EAS
Lecture notes

Nucleophilic Substitution
All about substitution reactions in organic chemistry

Nucleophilic Substitution
An overview

Nucleophilic Substitution
The mechanisms of SN1 and SN2 reactions. Organic Chemistry Portal

Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
An introduction

Organic Reaction Mechanisms
Electrophilic substitution reactions; nucleophilic substitution reactions and more. Understanding Chemistry, UK

Quirky Ligand Substitutions
Lecture notes

Sn1 Mechanism
Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions

Sn2 Mechanism - Nucleophiles
Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions

Sn2 Mechanism - Solvent Effects
Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions - Format: PDF

Sn2 Mechanism - Stereochemistry
Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions

Sn2 Mechanism - Substituent Effects
Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions

Substitution and Elimination Reactions
Comparative Chart - Format: PDF

Substitution Reactions
Tutorial, Textbook



Special Information


Sandmeyer Reaction
Substitution for an NH2 on an aromatic ring

Sonogashira Reaction
A palladium-catalyzed substitution reaction

Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution
The VNS allows the nucleophilic replacement of hydrogen in nitroaromatics and heteroaromatics. Organic Chemistry Portal



Compound Classes


Alcohols and Alkyl Halides
Radical Substitution

Alcohols and Alkyl Halides
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

Arenes
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Substitution reactions of benzene and other aromatic compounds

Benzene and Other Aromatic Compounds - II
Aromatic Substitution Reactions

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Phenols
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution



Dissertations


Reactions in Biologically Relevant Systems
Mechanistic Studies of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer and Ligand Substitution Reactions in Biologically Relevant Systems. Dissertation, 2008. University of Erlangen

 


Last update: 13.11.2018.






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