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Bio Availability of Vitamin A and Mango Fruit in Sindh Pakistan

By Mrs. Farzana Panhwar (2005).


Vitamin A is a fact soluble vitamin. It is essential for the promotion of normal growth, nutrition prevention of deficiency and diseases. Its essential to tissue health, especially in preventing pre-cancerous cells from becoming cancerous. It is needed for skeleton development and normal function of all tissues. Although vitamins are manufactured by plants but they also present in animals diet and regulate metabolism and help in conversion of carbohydrates and fats into energy. Sindh is having a good source of vitamin A in form of mango fruit. The various varieties of mangoes have difference concentration of beta-carotene, which are a precursor of vitamin A, and body covert it to vitamin A (retinal) as body demand arises. This way it remains store in the body for quite sufficient time. That is the reason the Sindh’s people have shown only once in a while vitamin A deficiency symptoms.



According to the definition of vitamins.

Vitamins, organised ferments or substances of unknown composition present in certain food stuffs, as in fresh or green vegetables and uncooked fruits, certain oil and fats. They are required in minute quantity and their absence leads to certain maladies or disorders. In order to ensure correct nutrition certain amount of various vitamins are needed. Vitamins generally are adversely affected or even destroyed by heat or desiccation. All the vitamins or their immediate precursors needed for humans nutrition are made by plants. Vitamins are accessory food factors (organic compounds found in plants and animals), necessary for our growth, reproduction and good health. They are required in small quantities in order to avoid a vitamin deficiency. Vitamins are needed for body metabolism and are essential part of enzyme system of the body. Vitamins are the substances existing in small quantities in certain food stuffs, the presence of which in the diet is considered essential of promotion of normal growth and nutrition and prevention of deficiency and diseases. Vitamins are manufactured by plants and are also present in animals. They regulate metabolism and help in conversion of carbohydrates and fats into energy. Peppers, green mature fruit contain certain, vitamin B and ascorbic acid. The cabbage leaves are excellent source of carotene (pro-vitamin A), ascorbic acid, minerals as well as source of thiamine and riboflavin. Retinal is found in foods of animal organ, especially liver, the liver of fish is a rich source of vitamin A. It can also obtained from milk, butter, cheese and egg. Apricots also contain vitamin A along with vitamin B complex niacin, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron. Grape fruit is rich in ascorbic acid, but not rich with vitamin A. While oranges are rich in vitamin A. Its vitamin content depend upon the high quality, durability, low production cost, large size fruit and dependable bearing of trees.

The vitamins present naturally in plants and animals are more in concentrated form. Vitamins supplied by fruit, vegetables and root crops. Some examples are as under:

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Bio Availability of Vitamin A and Mango Fruit in Sindh Pakistan.

More research papers: see Farzana Panhwar.


Last update: 12 January 2018.

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