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Climatic Changes of the Past and Its Impact on the Biological Diversity in Sindh, Pakistan

By Mrs. Farzana Panhwar (2005).


The scientific studies helps to understand the impact of climatic changes like greenhouse gases effect and global warming on biological diversity of species in the past and how they resulted into improvement of the genetic resources of crop, plants and their wild relatives upon which human survival depends.


The last Ice age, which ended 15,000 years ago and it started warming. The deciduous trees at the foot of the hill move up the hills and were replace by Savannahs. As it warm more trees started moving up-hill in search of colder weather. Today we have the following wild plants on the top-of the hills in Dadu and Larkana Districts at height of 3500-7000 feet. The plants observed these are:

- Wild apple.

- Wild peach.

- Wild plum.

- Wild grapes.

- Wild almond.

The detailed survey has not been done by professional botanist to find out deciduous shrubs, wild plants, grasses and etc.

On the Savannahs came wild animals like Zebu cattle (Bos Indicus), wild sheep (ovis), wild goat (caprahircus), ibex, deer and many other animals and their predators followed by man the leading predator of all of them.

Man then lived by praying animals, gathering wild fruits, vegetables, tubers, roots etc. By around 9,500 years ago he was able to domesticate wild animals like cattle (cows and buffaloes), wild sheep and goat. He started cultivating wild grasses likes wheat and barley around 9,000 years ago. He also was gathering wild fruits like zizyphus, rountiflora, date palm, almost simultaneously and grapes. These three crops were domesticated around latest 8,000 years ago. His dress consist of leather, soon around 6,000 years ago he was able to weave cotton for clothing and which started replacing leather. About 9,000 years ago human start cultivation of crops. At the 9,000 years ago he had already started building houses with mud bricks and thatched roof consisting of wooden beam, rafters and thatched grasses. The leather still was used for baskets, cushions, water storage, containers, bed-mattresses and covers. Some tents of leather were used before building mud houses. The domestication of crops was in the following order:

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Climatic Changes of the Past and Its Impact on the Biological Diversity in Sindh, Pakistan.

More research papers: see Farzana Panhwar.


Last update: 04 October 2022

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