The plant is named after French navigator de Bougainvillaea who carried it to in the ship to fame. It belongs to Four-Q-Clock family (Nyctaginaceae). The genous bougainvillaea, contains several species but only three are important. It is an ornamental climber. It also called paper flower.
Bougainvillaea (pukanawila) is a woody vine. It is common both in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Usually it needs pruning to give a shape of hedge, small tree, shrub, with single trunk which can be go up to 20 feet diameter. After pruning it produces heavy flowers. Although flowers pattern is affected with day length and temperature. The plant produces flowers, only at temperature 21 - 30 °C.
The common bougainvillaea found in the Philippines, Kenya, tropical and sub-tropical regions is called bougainvillaea spectabilis (purple colour flower) having two variant Bougainvillaea glabra having large magenta or purple bract and Bougainvillaea Peruviana bracket with lavender to rosy-round purple bracts.
It produces flowers which are hermaphrodite of purple, red, orange and white colours, each flower have three bract, in which veins are connected with tubular flowers. Each flower is a perfect flower having petal, stamens and pistil surrounded by a long tube. Fruit is small dry 5-ribbed achene.
Some flowers have double bracts. Double forms tends to carry their blooms near the end of the stem rather than distributing them evenly over the plant. Some flowers of Bougainvillaea have hard texture, can retain their shape after drying, while those flowers having soft texture will shrivel up after drying. Flowering period in Sindh is throughout the year except in May to July but, big flush comes March to April and October-November.. Moderate temperature plus longer night result into more flower flush.
The common varieties in Pakistan are: Bougainvillaea glabra, B. Louis Wathin, Mrs. Butt (Bilatereta) spectabilis splendens, white Bougainvillaea while other varieties are:
California Gold, Vickie, Juanita Hatten, Barbara Karst, Jamaica White, Sundown, Double Pink, Texas Dawn, Surprise, Rosenka (shrub-3 feet). Bougainvillaea (Bougainvillaea Spectabilis) and B. Brasiliensis has of bright magenta, pink, white, gold, orange and purple flowers, red, scarlet and lavender colour.
Bougainvillaea is divided on the basis of colour into following groups:
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More research papers: see Farzana Panhwar.
Last update: 04 October 2022
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