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The Use of Biotechnology in Sindh, Pakistan

By Mrs. Farzana Panhwar (2004).



Sindh has a sub-tropical climate, which is extremely suitable for large number of crops, but the farmers of Sindh are illiterate and they raise crops just by copying each other and do not take a risk with their investment. Due to this practice the local market is full with conventional fruits and vegetable raised here namely: mangoes, guava, grapefruit, lemon, lime, sapodilla, cherimoya, dates, lychee, papaya, melons and zizyphus mauritania. The net result is a few varieties of each fruit growing over short season and a glut of one or another fruit crops, throughout the year, and consequently low prices. Due to mono-culture all diseases, infection, and viral attacks are frequent, due to cover large area under same crop, and its control become difficult.

The solution lies in diversification of crops, with extension of harvest season and new cultivars, especially evolved by breeding , tissue culture , genetic engineering and bio-technology. These would be extremely beneficial, to bring sustainability locally and globally.

Agriculture is the backbone of our economy as well as of our foreign trade. To strengthen the economy of Pakistan, one should first of all take necessary steps to reform the agricultural system of the country. This can only be done by educating the farmers in the latest method of cultivation, new developments in agricultural inputs and day to day changes in Agricultural Research arena.

If we improve the agricultural sector in Sindh, and improve its economic growth and conditions, this alone can bring the sustainability locally and globally.



Pakistan lies between longitudes of 60°-70°East and latitudes 40°N to 37°N. It is located in the north-western sector of the South Asia. On its north it has boundary with China, and the Central Asian State in west Afghanistan and Iran. In the south -west is the Arabian sea and Persian Gulf. The south and south -east are connected with India. On north -east and east have Jammu and Kashmir States.

The population of Pakistan in the year 2003 was 149.1 millions. Projected population in the year 2025 will be 249.9 millions and by the year 2050 the population will be 348.6 millions. It cover an area of 307.375 square miles, while it contains 485 population per square miles.

In the year 2000 Pakistan had population 137.8 millions, it increases at the rate of 2.8%. Its projected population by the year 2025 will be 232.9 millions. Its annual renewable freshwater per capita available for the year 1990 was 3,838 cubic meters, while for the year 2025 it will be 1,643 cubic meters, while 74% population from the year 1990-95 having access to safe water. For the same period only 47% population was having adequate sanitation. The crop land available per capita in the year 1990 was 0.17 hectares, which in the year 2025 will be 0.07 hectares. In the year 1992 the CO² emissions per capita was 0.6 metric tonnes.

In the year 2003-2004 the actual shortage of river and canal water in Sindh has resulted in drop water table of aquifers from 15 feet to 50 feet. According to Government of Sindh’s estimates around 1.4 million people and more than 5.6 million livestock heads have been adversely affected due to drought condition, harsh climate, and pollution caused by above conditions.

In the year 1998 the extent of water-logging and salinity at the depth of 0-5 feet or 152 cm water table depth in Sindh affected 3796000 hectares, while in Pakistan it was 4942000 hectares but water table at 0-10 feet or 305 cm water table depth for the same year total in Pakistan was 9120000 hectares out of which in Sindh it was 5198000 hectares.

In the year 1998 the extent of saline/ sodic soil total land in Pakistan was 6173500 hectares out of which Sindh had 2109600 hectares. For he same year this saline/sodic land in Pakistan, were 2803800 hectares in which Sindh has 1151000 hectares.

In the year 1997-98, the total area under afforestation in Pakistan was 21400, out of which Sindh have 2800 hectares.

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The Use of Biotechnology in Sindh, Pakistan.

More research papers: see Farzana Panhwar.


Last update: 04 October 2022

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