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Chemistry News Archive April 2011

Chemistry News April 2011

News of the year 2011 in the fields of chemistry and chemistry-related topics like biochemistry, nantechnology, medicinal chemistry etc.

Main focus: press releases, scientific research results and summaries of chemistry articles, that are published in chemistry journals.

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NIST microreactor plate

Polymerization in a Microreactor

Small scale chemistry could lead to big improvements for biodegradable polymers.

Image: Typical NIST microreactor plate for studying enzyme catalyzed polymerization [Credit: Kundu, NIST].

Amphiphilic Dendronized Homopolymers

A novel class of amphiphilic dendronized homopolymers has been reported by The Department of Polymer Materials, Shanghai University.

Strontium sequestration by biomineralization

Strontium-90 Sequestration by Biomineralization

Addressing the nuclear waste issue: pond alga could help scientists design effective method for cleaning up nuclear waste.

[Image credit: ChemSusChem, Wiley, DOI 10.1002/cssc.201000448]

Phosphorescent nanoscale coordination polymer, NCP

Ruthenium Complex for Tumor Diagnostics

Phosphorescent metal-organic coordination polymers for optical imaging.

Image: Phosphorescent nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) with unprecedentedly high dye loadings were coated with thin silica shells to tune the dye release kinetics. Further functionalization of the NCP/silica particles with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and PEG-anisamide enhanced their biocompatibility and targeting ability, allowing cancer-specific imaging of human lung cancer H460 cells [credit: Angewandte Chemie International Edition].

Zeolite structures

New Database of Zeolite-like Materials

Exploring the possibilities for zeolites: Rice University team creates database of 2.6 million varieties of molecular sieves.

Image: Artist Kelly Harvey evoked images of the sea and a coral reef to hint at the diversity and quantity of structures in Rice University's new database of 2.6 million zeolite structures [Credit: Kelly Harvey].

Fluorescence fingerprint recognition

New Method to Identify Latent Fingerprints

Caught red-handed: detection of latent fingerprints through release of fluorescein from a nanofiber mat.

Image: An electrospun nanofiber mat is used to identify latent fingerprints on various surfaces within 30 seconds and produce inkjet-printed patterns. In contrast to classical approaches, the method is easy-to-operate, environmentally friendly, and has implications in other applied systems including chemical sensors, drug delivery, biological detection, and microreactors [credit: Angewandte Chemie, DOI 10.1002/anie.201006537].

1,4-dioxane derivatives of uranium iodides

Uranium Chemistry

LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates for advanced nuclear fuels. New method may also benefit superconductor R&D.

Image: This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5 complexes. The 1,4-dioxane derivatives of uranium iodides are easy to make and can be converted into a range of other compounds [Credit: Jaqueline Kiplinger, LANL].

Templated Creation of Radioactive Compounds

Inside View of a Uranium Nanosphere

Recipe for radioactive compounds aids nuclear waste and fuel storage pools studies.

Image: The diagrammatic image, viewed from upper left to bottom right, shows steps in the templated creation of radioactive compounds. In this case, the red spidery-looking shape is oxygen building a cage around tantalum (blue sphere) ; green sphere is potassium, pink is cesium. The yellow boxes are uranyl peroxide [Credit: Sandia National Laboratories].

Temperature-Tunable Selective Methane Catalysis

Scientists finely control methane combustion to get different products.

Image: This diagram shows how catalysts of two gold atoms can help convert methane into ethylene at room temperature (shown in red) and into formaldehyde at lower temperatures (shown in blue) [Credit: Uzi Landman].

Simulating Hydrocarbon Formation

Simulating Hydrocarbon Formation in the Deep Earth

A computer modeling study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that at deep Earth pressures and temperatures, longer hydrocarbons may be formed from the simplest one, the methane molecule.

Image: First-principles molecular dynamics simulation of liquid methane in contact with a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface at high temperature and pressure. The spontaneous formation of longer hydrocarbons is readily found during these simulations [Credit: Eric Schwegler, Lawrence Livermore National Lab].

Ligand-stabilized magnesium hydride cluster

On the Way to Hydrogen Storage?

A magnesium hydride cluster as a model for a hydrogen storage material at the sub-nanometer level.

Image: The largest ligand-stabilized magnesium hydride cluster, containing 8?Mg2+ and 10?H- ions, is a model for the smallest sub-nanometer-sized hydrogen storage material [Credit: Angewandte Chemie].

2-D Ceria Nanocrystals

Ceria as Oxygen Storage

2D beats 3D: Ceria in platelet form stores more oxygen than nanocrystalline form.

Image: Compared to the 3D ceria nanomaterials prepared by combustion and hydrothermal treatment, the ceria nanoplates exhibit superior oxygen storage properties [Credit: Angewandte Chemie International Edition].




Hopping Protons

Hopping Protons

Dr. Burkhard Schmidt simulates proton transfer in amino acids and small peptides on MATHEON. Proton transfer plays a role in energy conversion within solar cells and fuel cells, for example, and applies to the energy flow in batteries. It is even relevant to the development of new drugs.

Image: Snapshot from ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation [Credit: Dr. Burkhard Schmidt].




A New Test for Germs

Fluorescing DNAzymes detect metabolic products from bacteria.

Manduca sexta 

Antennal Transcriptome Characterized

Molecular messages from the antennae: Scientists assemble genes involved in regulating olfaction in the antennae of a moth.

Image: With the help of its antennae this night-active tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) has been able to locate wild tobacco flowers by smell and is now enjoying the nectar [Credit: MPI for Chemical Ecology/Danny Kessler].

Tobacco hornworm

Lollipops with Side Effects

A plant’s sugary offering betrays caterpillars to predatory ants.

Image: Freshly hatched Manduca sexta larva (tobacco hornworm) consuming trichomes of wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) [Credit: MPI Chemical Ecology: Ian Baldwin, Alexander Weinhold].


Chemistry and Nanotechnology:


Tandem Nanocatalysis

New Bilayer Nanocatalyst System for Tandem Catalysis

Berkeley Lab researchers report tandem catalysis in nanocrystal interfaces: Could be a boon to green energy.

Image: In a unqiue new bilyaer nanocatalyst system, single layers of metal and metal oxide nanocubes are deposited to create two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces that allow for multiple, sequential catalytic reactions to be carried out selectively and in tandem [Image courtesy of Yang group].

DNA Catenan

Double-Stranded DNA Catenane

The world's smallest wedding rings: 2 interlocking rings of DNA are only visible through the scanning force microscope.

Image: The world's smallest wedding rings are built up by two interlocked DNA-strands [Credit: Alexander Heckel].


Food Chemistry:

Food Chemistry

Coffee in capsules

Occurrence of furan in coffee

Coffee in capsules contains more furan than the rest.

Image: Coffee in capsules contains more furan than the rest, although the levels are still within safe health limits [Credit: SINC].


More News (open access):

New battery produces electricity where freshwater meets saltwater

Areas where rivers flow into the sea are promising locations for generating renewable energy using a new type of battery.

Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Scientists are reporting development of a new battery that extracts and stores energy produced from the difference in saltiness at the point where freshwater in rivers flows into oceans. A report on the battery, which could supply about 13 percent of the world’s energy needs, appears in ACS’ journal Nano Letters.

Yi Cui and colleagues cite the intensive global scientific effort to develop renewable energy sources to supplement supplies of oil and other traditional fuels like coal, which contribute to global warming. Solar, wind, and geothermal are renewable, sustainable energy sources that have attracted much attention recently. Scientists long have known about the possibility of producing electricity from differences in the salinity, or saltiness, of water. So the new study focused on development of more practical ways of tapping that potential.

The result was a so-called “mixing entropy battery.” Alternating the flow of river water and sea water through the battery produces electricity to charge it. The process also can be reversed to remove salt from ocean water to produce drinking water. The scientists describe the battery a very promising potential addition to the ranks of solar, wind, and other renewable energy, and are working on modifications to make the device a commercial reality.

The authors acknowledge funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Nano Letters: "Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference" [Nano Lett., 2011, 11 (4), pp 1810–1813; DOI: 10.1021/nl200500s].

Toward new medications for chronic brain diseases

Chronic brain disorders

Chronic brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease may become more manageable using a new substance that can sneak through the brain's protective barrier and block cholesterol formation.

Credit: iStock

A needle-in-the-haystack search through nearly 390,000 chemical compounds had led scientists to a substance that can sneak through the protective barrier surrounding the brain with effects promising for new drugs for Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. They report on the substance, which blocks formation of cholesterol in the brain, in the journal, ACS Chemical Biology.

Aleksey G. Kazantsev and colleagues previously discovered that blocking cholesterol formation in the brain could protect against some of the damage caused by chronic brain disorders like Parkinson’s disease. Several other studies have suggested that too much cholesterol may kill brain cells in similar neurodegenerative diseases. So they launched a search for a so-called “small molecules” - substances ideal for developing into medicines - capable of blocking formation of cholesterol.

They describe discovery of a small molecule that blocks the activity of a key protein involved in cholesterol production. It successfully lowered cholesterol levels in isolated nerve cells and brain slices from mice. If the molecule proves to be a good target for developing new drugs, the scientists note, “it could have a broader application in other neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, for which modulation of cholesterol and other associated metabolic pathways might be of therapeutic benefit.”

The authors acknowledge funding from the Carmen Foundation, the RJG Foundation, the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, the CHDI Foundation, the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, and the Swiss National Science Foundation.

ACS Chemical Biology: "A Brain-Permeable Small Molecule Reduces Neuronal Cholesterol by Inhibiting Activity of Sirtuin 2 Deacetylase" [ACS Chem. Biol., Article ASAP, March 3, 2011; DOI: 10.1021/cb100376q].

First identification of endocrine disruptors in algae blooms

Scientists are reporting for the first time that previously unrecognized substances released by algae blooms have the potential to act as endocrine disruptors, which can interfere with the normal activity of reproductive hormones. The effect is not caused by microcystin toxins, long recognized as potentially harmful to humans and aquatic animals, but as yet unidentified substances. As a result, the scientists are calling for a revision of environmental monitoring programs to watch for these new substances. The findings appear in ACS’s journal Environmental Science & Technology.

Theodore Henry and colleagues note that harmful blooms of toxin-producing algae, called cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, occur in waters throughout the world and are a growing health and environmental concern. The algae produce microcystins that can harm fish, plants, and human health. Possible human health effects include skin rashes, fever, and liver damage. Although scientists have focused mainly on microcystins’ biological effects, new evidence suggests that other potentially harmful substances also may be present.

In an effort to find out, Emily Rogers supervised by Theodore Henry, and co-authors Michael Twiner, Julia Gouffon, Jackson McPherson, Gregory Boyer, Gary Sayler, and Steven Wilhelm turned to zebrafish, often used as a stand-in for people and other animals in laboratory experiments. They found that something released by algae, other than microcystins, had an endocrine disrupting effect on the fish. The report recommends that environmental protection agencies may need to update monitoring programs for algae blooms to include potential endocrine-disrupting substances.

The scientists acknowledge funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Environmental Science & Technology: "Global gene expression profiling in larval zebrafish exposed to microcystin-LR and Microcystis reveals endocrine disrupting effects of cyanobacteria" [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45 (5), pp 1962–1969; DOI: 10.1021/es103538b].

Quest for new plant protection substances mirrors search for new drugs

The costly, often-frustrating quest for new ways of preventing and treating diseases that strike vegetables, fruits, and other food crops bears striking similarity to the better-known saga of the pharmaceutical industry’s pricey search for new drugs for humans. That’s the topic of an article in the current edition of Chemical and Engineering News (C&EN), ACS’ weekly newsmagazine.

C&EN Senior Business Editor Melody M. Bomgardner points out that the R&D investment in new herbicides, fungicides, and other plant chemicals almost rivals that for human pharmaceuticals on a one for one basis. It costs about $256 million to develop a new herbicide or fungicide, for instance, compared to almost $1 billion, by some estimates, for a new drug.

The article explains that global sales of agricultural chemicals now approach $40 billion per year, but the development of new products has slowed. One reason: The development of crops such as Roundup Ready soybeans - genetically-engineered to withstand high-levels of herbicides - has reduced use of traditional chemical-based pest control. Scientists still are seeking new herbicides, however, because some weeds show signs of developing resistance to the new herbicides Government safety regulations are another reason that the number of new agricultural chemicals in the pipeline has dipped.

Chemical and Engineering News: "Germinating Pesticides" [April 18, 2011; Volume 89, Number 16, pp 13-17].

Keeping beer fresh longer

Beer could stay fresh and tasty longer thanks to the discovery of a scientific basis for extending its shelf life.

Credit: iStock

Researchers are reporting discovery of a scientific basis for extending the shelf life of beer so that it stays fresh and tastes good longer. For the first time, they identified the main substances that cause the bitter, harsh aftertaste of aged beer and suggest that preventing the formation of these substances could help extend its freshness. Their findings appear in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Thomas Hofmann and colleagues point out that beer can develop an unpleasant, bitter aftertaste as it ages. Unlike wine, scotch whiskey, and bourbon, beer tastes best when consumed fresh. Experts estimate that the average beer goes bad after 6 to 12 months of storage. Scientists have identified several dozens of the key bitter-tasting substances formed during beer manufacturing — mostly so-called “prenylated polyketides” derived from hops. Until now, however, nobody had solid information about the bitter substances that form as beer ages.

The scientists analyzed a variety of commercial beers both before and after storage. They identified 56 substances that contribute to beer’s bitter taste, including five that appear to be largely responsible for its harsh flavor after aging. “The present study offers the scientific basis for a knowledge-based extension of the shelf life of the desirable beer’s bitter taste and the delay of the onset of the less preferred harsh bitter aftertaste by controlling the initial pH value of the beer and by keeping the temperature as low as possible during storage of the final beverage,” the study concludes.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry: "Comprehensive Sensomics Analysis of Hop-Derived Bitter Compounds during Storage of Beer" [J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59 (5), pp 1939–1953; DOI: 10.1021/jf104392y].

Banana peels get a second life as water purifier

Banana peels

Banana peels show promise as superior water purification materials.

Credit: iStock

To the surprisingly inventive uses for banana peels - which include polishing silverware, leather shoes, and the leaves of house plants - scientists have added purification of drinking water contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Their report, which concludes that minced banana peel performs better than an array of other purification materials, appears in ACS’s journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.

Gustavo Castro and colleagues note that mining processes, runoff from farms, and industrial wastes can all put heavy metals, such as lead and copper, into waterways. Heavy metals can have adverse health and environmental effects. Current methods of removing heavy metals from water are expensive, and some substances used in the process are toxic themselves. Previous work has shown that some plant wastes, such as coconut fibers and peanut shells, can remove these potential toxins from water. In this report, the researchers wanted to find out whether minced banana peels could also act as water purifiers.

The researchers found that minced banana peel could quickly remove lead and copper from river water as well as, or better than, many other materials. A purification apparatus made of banana peels can be used up to 11 times without losing its metal-binding properties, they note. The team adds that banana peels are very attractive as water purifiers because of their low cost and because they don’t have to be chemically modified in order to work.

The authors acknowledge funding from the São Paulo Research Foundation.

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research: "Banana Peel Applied to the Solid Phase Extraction of Copper and Lead from River Water: Preconcentration of Metal Ions with a Fruit Waste" [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50 (6), pp 3446–3451; DOI: 10.1021/ie101499e].

Toward a 'green grid' for delivering solar and wind-based electricity

Green grid

A 'green grid' for delivering solar and wind-based electricity is a step-closer after the identification of several technologies that could provide energy storage for the grid.

Credit: iStock

After years of neglect, scientists and policy makers are focusing more attention on developing technologies needed to make the so-called “green grid” possible, according to an article in ACS’ Chemical Reviews. That’s the much-needed future electrical grid, an interconnected network for delivering solar and wind-based electricity from suppliers to consumers.

Zhenguo (Gary) Yang and colleagues point out that concerns over the use of coal, oil, and other fuels that contribute to global warming and are in limited supply, have spurred interest in generating electrical energy from clean, renewable resources such as solar and wind power. But solar and wind are not constant and reliable sources of power, since wind power fluctuates from moment to moment and solar power is generated only in the daytime. This situation poses a significant challenge for electrical grid operators because other power plants need to compensate for this variability and the U.S. power grid currently has little energy storage capability. To enable a significant level of penetration and effective use of renewable energy sources amid growing energy demands, electrical grids of the future will need a low-cost, efficient way to integrate and store this electrical energy, the scientists note.

The scientists analyzed the conclusions of more than 300 scientific studies and identified several technologies that can be used for energy storage for the green grid. These include high-tech batteries now in development that can efficiently store electricity in the form of chemicals and reversible release it on demand. Among the promising technologies are so-called redox flow and sodium-ion batteries, which could provide a low cost, high efficiency way to store energy. In addition to the United States, several other countries such as China and countries in Europe are planning to increase research activities related to energy storage and development. “The growing interests as well as worldwide research and development activities suggest a bright outlook for developing stationary energy storage technologies for the future electric grid,” the article concludes.

Chemical Reviews: "Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid" [Chem. Rev., Article ASAP, 2011, DOI: 10.1021/cr100290v].

Simple chemical cocktail shows first promise for limb re-growth in mammals

Move over, newts and salamanders. The mouse may join you as the only animal that can re-grow their own severed limbs. Researchers are reporting that a simple chemical cocktail can coax mouse muscle fibers to become the kinds of cells found in the first stages of a regenerating limb. Their study, the first demonstration that mammal muscle can be turned into the biological raw material for a new limb, appears in the journal ACS Chemical Biology.

Darren R. Williams and Da-Woon Jung say their “relatively simple, gentle, and reversible” methods for creating the early stages of limb regeneration in mouse cells “have implications for both regenerative medicine and stem cell biology.” In the future, they suggest, the chemicals they use could speed wound healing by providing new cells at the injured site before the wound closes or becomes infected. Their methods might also shed light on new ways to switch adult cells into the all-purpose, so-called “pluripotent,” stem cells with the potential for growing into any type of tissue in the body.

The scientists describe the chemical cocktail that they developed and used to turn mouse muscle fibers into muscle cells. Williams and Jung then converted the muscle cells turned into fat and bone cells. Those transformations were remarkably similar to the initial processes that occur in the tissue of newts and salamanders that is starting to regrow severed limbs.

The authors acknowledge funding from the National Research Foundation of Korea.

ACS Chemical Biology: "Novel Chemically Defined Approach To Produce Multipotent Cells from Terminally Differentiated Tissue Syncytia" [ACS Chem. Biol., 2011; DOI: 10.1021/cb2000154].

Vegans’ elevated heart risk requires omega-3s and B12

People who follow a vegan lifestyle - strict vegetarians who try to eat no meat or animal products of any kind - may increase their risk of developing blood clots and atherosclerosis or “hardening of the arteries,” which are conditions that can lead to heart attacks and stroke. That’s the conclusion of a review of dozens of articles published on the biochemistry of vegetarianism during the past 30 years. The article appears in ACS’ bi-weekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Duo Li notes in the review that meat eaters are known for having a significantly higher combination of cardiovascular risk factors than vegetarians. Lower-risk vegans, however, may not be immune. Their diets tend to be lacking several key nutrients - including iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids. While a balanced vegetarian diet can provide enough protein, this isn’t always the case when it comes to fat and fatty acids. As a result, vegans tend to have elevated blood levels of homocysteine and decreased levels of HDL, the “good” form of cholesterol. Both are risk factors for heart disease.

It concludes that there is a strong scientific basis for vegetarians and vegans to increase their dietary omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 to help contend with those risks. Good sources of omega-3s include salmon and other oily fish, walnuts and certain other nuts. Good sources of vitamin B12 include seafood, eggs, and fortified milk. Dietary supplements also can supply these nutrients.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry: "Chemistry behind Vegetarianism" [J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59 (3), pp 777–784; DOI: 10.1021/jf103846u].

Tungsten may not be the best shot for making 'reen' bullets

With efforts underway to ban lead-based ammunition as a potential health and environmental hazard, scientists are reporting new evidence that a prime alternative material for bullets - tungsten - may not be a good substitute The report, which found that tungsten accumulates in major structures of the immune system in animals, appears in ACS’ journal Chemical Research in Toxicology.

Jose Centeno and colleagues explain that tungsten alloys have been introduced as a replacement for lead in bullets and other munitions. It resulted from concern that lead from spent ammunition could harm wildlife when it dissolves into water in the soil, streams, and lakes. Scientists thought that tungsten was relatively non-toxic, and a “green” replacement for lead. Recent studies suggested otherwise, and with small amounts of tungsten also used in some artificial hips and knees, Centeno’s group decided to gather further information on tungsten.

They added small amounts of a tungsten compound to the drinking water of laboratory mice, used as surrogates for people in such research, and examined the organs and tissues to see exactly where tungsten ended up. The highest concentrations of tungsten were in the spleen, one of the main components of the immune system, and the bones, the center or “marrow” of which is the initial source of all the cells of the immune system. Further research, they say, will be needed to determine what effects, if any, tungsten may have on functioning of the immune system.

The authors acknowledge funding from the Naval Health Research Center Detachment - Environmental Health Effects Laboratory.

Chemical Research in Toxicology: "Tissue distribution of tungsten in mice following oral exposure to sodium tungstate" [Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2011, DOI: 10.1021/tx200011k].

Archaeological whodunit from the hometown of Romeo and Juliet

Three new bright blue pigments with origins in the hometown of Shakespeare’s star-crossed lovers Romeo and Juliet have become stars in a drama that is unsettling experts on conservation of archaeological treasures around the world. That’s the topic of an article on the solution of an archaeological ‘whodunit’ involving those new-to-science pigments in the current edition of Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), ACS’ weekly newsmagazine.

C&EN Associate Editor Carmen Drahl notes in the article that the drama began last year when prehistoric flint tools began showing visible signs of contamination - a bright blue tinge. The tainted relics came from a museum in Verona, Italy, the setting for Shakeaspeare’s great tragedy. Archaeologists were fascinated, having never encountered such a color change in their careers, especially one involving a hard stone like flint.

Scientists just identified the pigments responsible for the blue color, naming them Romeo Blue, Juliet Blue, and Flint Blue. They traced the possible origins of the pigments to an ingredient in synthetic rubber mats which held the tools, and contaminated them. The incident is creating a new awareness among museum conservation experts about the possibility of other, previously unknown interactions occurring between ancient treasures and the environments in which they are stored.

Chemical and Engineering News: "Blue Whodunit" [April 4, 2011 Issue].

Mussel adhesive inspires tough coating for living cells

Inspired by Mother Nature, scientists are reporting development of a protective coating with the potential to enable living cells to survive in a dormant condition for long periods despite intense heat, dryness and other hostile conditions. In a report in Journal of the American Chemical Society, they liken the coating to the armor that encloses the spores that protect anthrax and certain other bacterial cells, making those microbes difficult to kill.

Insung S. Choi and colleagues say their simple method for coating the yeast cells could “serve as a new strategy for controlling cell division and protection of artificial spore like structures in a designed way.” The technique could be used to encapsulate individual cells for a variety of purposes, including the creation of tiny chemical probes, single-cell chemical factories, and perhaps armor for transplanted cells used in anti-cancer therapies.

The new coating is an organic material called polydopamine, chemically similar to mussel adhesive. In laboratory experiments, the coating slowed down cell division in the yeast, while protecting them from cell-digesting chemicals. “We believe that polydopamine encapsulation would be a good starting point for both fundamental research and applications based on artificial spores,” Choi and colleagues note in their study, “as it endows living cells with durability against harsh environments, controllability in cell cycles, and reactivity for cell-surface modification.”

The authors acknowledge funding from the Korea Research Foundation and the National Research Foundation of Korea.

Journal of the American Chemical Society: "Mussel-Inspired Encapsulation and Functionalization of Individual Yeast Cells" [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133 (9), pp 2795–2797; DOI: 10.1021/ja1100189].


Kewords: Chemistry, news, reports, April 2011
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