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Alkanes

Substance description and data on the substance group of alkanes.

 

The alkanes form a group of hydrocarbon compounds with straight or branched chain, saturated, non-cyclic (acyclic) and non-aromatic (aliphatic) carbon chains. The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2 where n = number of carbon atoms.

Unterschieden werden:

n-alkanes:
n-alkanes or normal alkanes form a homologous series of organic chemical compounds with linear (straight-chain, unbranched) linked carbon atoms that differ in the number of CH2 units:

n-Alkanes

Paraffins:
The paraffins consist of single or mixed alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms. Depending on the number of carbon atoms, the paraffins are liquid, viscous or solid masses with increasing melting and boiling points.

Cycloalkanes:
The cyclic alkanes or cycloalkanes represent a special group of hydrocarbons in which the carbon chains are arranged in a ring.

 

Properties of n-alkanes

The table below shows some properties of the unbranched alkanes or n-alkanes:

n-AlkaneFormulaMolecular
Mass
[g mol-1]
Melting
Point [°C]
Boiling
Point [°C]
Density
at 20 °C
[g cm-3]
Flash
Point [°C]
Ignition
Point [°C]
CAS
[PubChem]
MethaneCH416.04- 182.48- 161.49gaseous--74-82-8
[297]
EthaneC2H630.07- 183.27- 88.63gaseous--74-84-0
[6324]
PropaneC3H844.10- 187.69- 42.07gaseous--74-98-6
[6334]
ButaneC4H1058.12- 138.35- 0.50gaseous--106-97-8
[7843]
PentaneC5H1272.15- 129.7236.070.626--109-66-0
[8003]
HexaneC6H1486.18- 95.3568.740.659--110-54-3
[8058]
HeptanC7H16100.21- 90.5598.380.679-7220 142-82-5
[8900]
OctaneC8H18114.23- 56.80125.670.703 12205111-65-9
[356]
NonaneC9H20128.26- 53.52150.800.718 31205111-84-2
[8141]
DecaneC10H22142.29- 29.66174.120.730 46210124-18-5
[15600]
UndecaneC11H24156.31- 25.60195.890.740 62-1120-21-4
[14257]
DodecaneC12H26170.34- 9.60216.300.749 71205112-40-3
[8182]
TridecaneC13H28184.37- 5.39235.430.756 79220629-50-5
[12388]
TetradecaneC14H30198.395.86253.520.76399235629-59-4
[12389]
PentadecaneC15H32212.429.93270.610.768132200629-62-9
[12391]
HexadecaneC16H34226.4518.17286.800.773135215544-76-3
[11006]
HeptadecaneC17H36240.4721.98302.150.778149-629-78-7
[12398]
OctadecaneC18H38254.5028.18316.710.782154-593-45-3
[11635]
NonadecaneC19H40268.5331.90330.60.785168-629-92-5
[12401]
Icosane
Eicosane
C20H42282.5536.7342.70.789176202112-95-8
[8222]
HeneicosaneC21H44296.5840.5356.10.792110-629-94-7
[12403]
DocosaneC22H46310.6143.8368.60.794113-629-97-0
[12405]
TricosaneC23H48324.6347.43800.797113-638-67-5
[12534]
TetracosaneC24H50338.6650.3391.30.799113-646-31-1
[12592]
PentacosaneC25H52352.6953.3401.90.801120-629-99-2
[12406]
HexacosaneC26H54366.7156.4412.20.803--630-01-3
[12407]
HeptacosaneC27H56380.7459.5428.050.780--593-49-7
[11636]
OctacosaneC28H58394.7761.3431.60.807--630-02-4
[12408]
NonacosaneC29H60408.8063.7440.80.808--630-03-5
[12409]
TriacontaneC30H62422.8265.8449.70.810--638-68-6
[12535]
HentriacontaneC31H64436.8567.9458---630-04-6
[12410]
DotriacontaneC32H66450.8869.74670.812--544-85-4
[11008]
TritriacontaneC33H68464.90714740.811--630-05-7
[12411]
TetratriacontaneC34H70478.9372.6-0.812--14167-59-0
[26519]
PentatriacontaneC35H72492.96754900.813--630-07-9
[12413]
HexatriacontaneC36H74506.9876-0.814--630-06-8
[12412]
HeptatriacontaneC37H76520.9977504.140.815--7194-84-5
[23598]
OctatriacontaneC38H78535.0379510.930.816--7194-85-6
[23599]
NonatriacontaneC39H80549.0582517.510.817--7194-86-7
[114842]
TetracontaneC40H82563.0884523.880.817--4181-95-7
[20149]
HentetracontaneC41H84577.1185530.750.818--7194-87-8
[81613]
DotetracontaneC42H86591.1386536.070.819--7098-20-6
[123244]
TritetracontanC43H88605.15-541.910.82--7098-21-7
[522398]
TetratetracontaneC44H90619.18-547.570.82--7098-22-8
[23494]
PentatetracontaneC45H92633.21-553.10.821--7098-23-9
[14598280]
HexatetracontaneC46H94647.23-558.420.822--7098-24-0
[522399]
HeptatetracontaneC47H96661.26-563.60.822--7098-25-1
[15043573]
OctatetracontaneC48H98675.29-568.680.823--7098-26-2
[138925]
NonatetracontaneC49H100689.32-573.60.823--7098-27-3
[15043574]
PentacontaneC50H102703.34-578.40.824--6596-40-3
[81067]
HenpentacontaneC51H104717.37-5830.824--7667-76-7
[15043575]
DopentacontaneC52H106731.39-587.60.825--7719-79-1
[522643]
TripentacontaneC53H108745.42-5920.825--7719-80-4
[15043576]
TetrapentacontaneC54H110759.45-596.380.826--5856-66-6
[521846]

Category: compound classes

 

Literature sources and further information:

[1] - NN:
Alkanes.
In: IUPAC Gold Book, DOI 10.1351/goldbook.A00222.

 


Last update: 04 November 2022



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