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X-Ray Spectroscopy

Information on scientific and technical methods that use X-rays.

X-ray spectroscopy is a rapid and economical physical technique for the quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of specimens and a gathering name for several spectroscopic methods using x-ray: X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy etc.

According to IUPAC, X-ray spectroscopy consists of three steps:

1. excitation to produce emission lines characteristic of the elements in the material;

2. measurement of their intensity, and

3. conversion of X-ray intensity to concentration by a calibration procedure which may include correction for matrix effects.

Corresponding devices are called X-ray spectrometers, working in the field of soft and hard X-rays. A special form is the so-called X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, short XRF spectrometer. Moreover, there are large-scale X-ray radiation sources for research purposes.

Applications for this technique of spectroscopy, for example: the structural analysis, crystallography, analytical chemistry, materials science etc.

The following list shows available online information about X-ray spectroscopy and related methods.

Content, Topics

Lecture Notes, Tutorials
Historical Facts and Documents
Data and Databases
Software and Programs
Books Online, eBooks

Lecture Notes, Tutorials

Interactive Tutorial about Diffraction. A pictorial guide to crystal structures and their Fourier transforms useful for teaching diffraction physics

Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Physical principles

Interpreting XANES - Format: PDF

XANES spectroscopy
X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure - Format: PDF

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

X-Ray Diffraction
Principles of X-ray Diffraction - Format: PDF

X-Ray Diffraction
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

X-Ray Diffraction
Basics - Format: PDF

X-ray Spectroscopy
Nomenclature system for X-ray spectroscopy. IUPAC - Format: PDF

X-ray Spectroscopy
Lecture notes and background information

X-ray Spectroscopy
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

X-ray Spectroscopy
... and Moseley’s Law - Format: PDF

X-Rays and Magnetism
From fundamentals to nanoscale dynamics - Format: PDF

Historical Facts and Documents

Discoveries in the Field of X-rays
The most important ones awarded with the Nobel Prize are listed

Data and Databases

Chemical Elements
Photon energies, energies of x-ray emission lines - Format: PDF

Chemical Elements
X-ray spectrum of the elements on the periodic table. Bruker - Format: PDF

Crystallographic Diffraction Data
The xrefin statement sets up information that is needed for all aspects of X-PLOR dealing with crystallographic diffraction data

Arranged by X-Ray Powder Diffraction. Webminerals

Software and Programs

Download Programs
Single Crystal and Powder Diffraction

Single Crystal and Powder Diffraction
Freely Available Crystallographic Software for Academia. CCP14, UK

Single Crystal Diffraction Software
Lists of software by single crystal and powder methods

Books Online, eBooks

Advances in X-Ray Analysis
by John V. Gilfrich, I. C. Noyan, 1997. Google Books

Handbook of Practical X-ray Fluorescence Analysis
by B. Beckhoff, N. Langhoff, B. Kanngiefer, R. Wedell, H. Wolff, Springer, 2006. Google Books

Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
Capabilities for in situ analysis. By P. J. Potts, Margaret West, RSC, 2008. Google Books

X-ray Spectrometry
Recent technological advances. By Kouichi Tsuji, Jasna Injuk, René Grieken, 2004. Google Books


Powder Diffraction
... is a quarterly journal devoted to the use of the powder method for materials characterization. Cambridge University Press

X-Ray Spectrometry
X-Ray Spectrometry is devoted to the rapid publication of papers dealing with the theory and application of x-ray spectrometry using electron, x-ray photon, proton, gamma and gamma-x sources. Wiley

X-ray Structure Analysis Online
… is the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry's electronic-only journal for the concise crystal structure reports on all classes of compounds. The journal presents unpublished X-ray structure data and structural discussion from academic and industrial research laboratories to make this information available to the public to be used in various fields, including analytical sciences, pharmacology, theoretical chemistry, etc


European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

International Centre for Diffraction Data ®
ICDD ® is a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to collecting, editing, publishing, and distributing powder diffraction data for the identification of crystalline materials


Last update: 03.12.2018.

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