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Photosynthetica

Current research articles..




The scientific journal Photosynthetica is devoted to the investigation of photosynthesis, combining biochemical, biophysical and ecological approaches to the study of photosynthesis in plants. The journal carries specialized reviews on various aspects of photosynthesis research and presents papers on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus; chloroplast pigments (both in vivo and in vitro); biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of photosynthetic reactions; measurements of photosynthesis and photosynthetic production by techniques ranging from laboratory gas-exchange measurements to growth analysis, etc.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (photosynthesis):

 - Photosynthesis Research.



Photosynthetica - Abstracts



Photosynthetic and yield responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to different water management strategies in subtropical China

Abstract

An experiment was performed to study gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to various regimes, such as flooding–midseason drying–flooding (FDF), flooding–midseason drying–saturation (FDS), and flooding–rain-fed (FR) regimes. Compared to FDF, FR resulted in an obvious decrease in net photosynthetic rate (PN), due to the decrease in stomatal conductance and the increase in stomatal limitation. In contrast, FDS plants did not suffer stomatal limitation and had comparable PN with FDF plants. For diurnal light-saturated electron transport rate and saturation irradiance, FDF performed the best, which was followed by FDS and FR successively. FR and FDS plants tended to suffer from midday depression. FDS reduced irrigated water by 17.2% compared to FDF for comparable yields. The results suggested that FDS can be an effective irrigation regime to save water.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Leaf gas exchange, phosphorus uptake, growth and yield responses of cotton cultivars to different phosphorus rates

Abstract

Growth and physiological responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars with different phosphorus (P) efficiencies under variable P environment are poorly known. Therefore, this study explored effects of normal P [P+, 70 kg(P2O5) ha–1] and without P (P, 0 kg ha–1) on yield, growth, and physiology of different P-efficient cultivars [low-efficient Xinluzao 13 (L1) and Xinluzao 26 (L2); medium-efficient Xinluzao 10 (M1) and Xinluzao 24 (M2); high-efficient Zhongmiansuo 42 (H1) and Xinluzao19 (H2)]. Cotton growth and yield was higher in H1 and H2 cultivars under P+ compare to P. Leaf photosynthesis, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance, and net assimilation rate increased under P+ and in high-efficient cultivars. Greater Rubisco activity and higher soluble sugar content further promoted P uptake and utilization efficiency which resulted in a higher yield under normal P+ than that at P treatment. High-P-efficient cultivars have the potential to increase the yield by improving cotton growth and physiological attributes under P+.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Soil Cu contamination destroys the photosynthetic systems and hampers the growth of green vegetables

Abstract

Soil metal contamination leads to a decrease in a yield of crops and is a threat to human health. In the present study, the properties (i.e., photosynthetic pigments, gas-exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass, leaf area, leaf mass per area) of three green vegetables (i.e., Brassica chinensis, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Brassica alboglabra) grown under various Cu treatments [0, 200, 400, and 600 mg(Cu) kg–1] were measured and analysed. The results showed that soil Cu contamination resulted in the damage of photosynthetic pigments, negative effects on gas exchange, and hampered growth of all three vegetables. However, it did not significantly influence PSII functions of the three vegetables. It indicates that soil Cu contamination negatively affected photosynthesis particularly due to stomatal factors, but not due to the damage of photosynthetic apparatus.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Responses of photosynthesis, dry mass and carbon isotope discrimination in winter wheat to different irrigation depths

Abstract

In order to test the effects of irrigation depth on winter wheat photosynthesis, four treatments were applied in a field experiment using PVC growth tubes (identical amounts of water were applied on the land surface, and at 60, 75, and 90% of the depth for the winter wheat root distribution, denoted as D0, D60, D75, and D90, respectively). Compared to the surface irrigation treatment D0, the leaf area index, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration increased with irrigation depths. The values of these indicators obtained by the underground irrigation treatment D75 were higher than those of D60 and D90, and thus D75 was found to be the optimum irrigation depth. Furthermore, a positive but not significant correlation (r = 0.62) between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) and grain yield was found. This study improves our understanding of the mechanism of underground water distribution control with depth, and the efficiency of water-saving irrigation for winter wheat.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Photosynthesis and leaf development of cherry tomato seedlings under different LED-based blue and red photon flux ratios

Abstract

We investigated the photosynthesis and leaf development of cherry tomato seedlings grown under five different combinations of red and blue light provided by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Fresh biomass increased significantly under treatments with blue light percentages of 50, 60, and 75%, with 50% blue-light-grown seedlings accumulating significantly more dry mass. The 25% blue-light-grown seedlings were obviously weaker than those from the other LED treatments. An increase in net photosynthetic rate upon blue light exposure (25–60%) was associated with increases in leaf mass per unit leaf area, leaf area, leaf density, stomatal number, chloroplast and mesophyll cell development, and chlorophyll contents. Our results imply that photosynthesis and leaf development in cherry tomato seedlings are associated with both the proportion and quantity of blue light.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Zinc accumulation, photosynthetic gas exchange, and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Zn-stressed Miscanthus × giganteus plants

Abstract

Accumulation and distribution of zinc within Miscanthus × giganteus plants grown on elevated Zn concentrations and their photosynthetic performance were investigated. High concentrations of Zn in soils caused an increase of its concentrations in all plant organs. The bioconcentration factor, bioaccumulation factor, and translocation factor were lower than one indicating that M. × giganteus is an excluder plant species. Excessive Zn induced visible leaf damage, i.e. chlorosis and necrosis, only in the oldest leaves, pointing to Zn accumulation. Elevated amounts of Zn in leaves significantly lowered the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentrations, parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and chlorophyll b content. Despite Zn excess in leaves, there was no severe reduction in the maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, indicating a high photosynthetic capacity, high tolerance to elevated Zn concetrations, and ability of M. × giganteus to grow on Zn-contaminated soils.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Transcriptome profiling of genes involved in photosynthesis in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. under salt stress

Abstract

High salt concentration is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Elaeagnus angustifolia L. adapts to adverse environments and is widely planted in the western region of China as a windbreaker and for landscape and soil stabilization. High salt concentrations inhibited photosynthesis of E. angustifolia, but the mechanism is not known. In this paper, RNA-sequencing was used to investigate effects of salt stress on the photosynthetic characteristics of the species. In total, 584 genes were identified and involved in photosynthetic pathways. The downregulation of genes that encode key enzymes involved in photosynthesis and genes correlated to important structures in photosystem and light-harvesting complexes might be the main reason, particularly, the downregulation of the gene that encodes magnesium chelatase. This would decrease the activity of enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis and the downregulation of the key gene that encodes Rubisco, and thereby decreases enzyme activity and the protein content of Rubisco.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Effect of light quality on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica L. Batch)

Abstract

Different light filters affect leaf photosynthetic features and fruit quality. Consequently, selecting the appropriate covering filter for rain-shelter cultivation of peaches is a key part of successful production. We used a late-maturing peach variety ‘Xiahui 8’ to study differences in leaf photosynthetic features, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and fruit quality under neutral, red, yellow, green, and blue filter, with natural light as control. The results showed that the leaf photosynthetic ability and internal quality under the neutral filter treatment were elevated compared with the control, and the appearance color was the same as the control. Leaves under neutral filter could maintain higher photosynthetic ability than other filter treatments. In addition, the fruits could also keep higher quality when treated with neutral filter. Therefore, the application of neutral filter in rain-shelter cultivation of ‘Xinhui 8’ peaches is recommended for maintaining high photosynthetic capacity and for improving fruit quality.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Viscosimetric analysis of the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis by pea chloroplast F1-ATPase

Abstract

Dependence of ATP hydrolysis kinetics by the chloroplast coupling factor (CF1) on medium viscosity was studied at varying temperatures. For samples with oxidized and reduced CF1 γ-subunit, this dependence was shown to be described by Cramers’ relationship k ~ (η/ηo)–n, where k is the reaction rate constant, η/ηo is the medium/water viscosity ratio, and 0 < n < 1. Transition of the γ-subunit from its reduced to oxidized state was accompanied by increasing n value, which is indicative of increasing friction losses between certain enzyme sections and the solution. The increased medium viscosity produced no effect on the reaction activation energy which appeared to be almost the same for the both enzyme states. The molecular mechanisms responsible for CF1 activity loss in viscous media are discussed.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Comparative chloroplast proteome analysis of exogenously supplied trehalose to wheat seedlings under heat stress

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exogenously supplied trehalose affecting wheat photosynthesis under heat stress. The amount of ATP synthase (ATPase), oxygen-evolving enhancer protein (OEE), PsbP, Rubisco, chloroplast fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA), and ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) were downregulated, while PSI reaction center subunits were upregulated under heat stress. However, in the trehalose-pretreated groups, the amount of FNR, cytochrome b6f complex, PSI reaction center subunits, ATPase, FBPA, and Rubisco were upregulated under normal growth conditions and heat stress. Besides, during the recovery period, the upregulation in CAB, PsbP, OEE2, and ATPase suggested that trehalose pretreatment might help to the recovery of PSII and PSI. These results indicate that trehalose pretreatment effectively regulates the levels of the photosynthesis-related proteins and relieves the damage of heat stress to wheat chloroplast.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Effects of GeO2 on chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzymes in apple leaves under strong light

Abstract

In this study, we chose apple leaf as plant material and studied effects of GeO2 on operation of photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant enzyme activities under strong light. When exogenous GeO2 concentration was below 5.0 mg L–1, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry increased significantly compared with the control under irradiances of 800 and 1,600 μmol(photon) m–2 s–1. Photosynthetic electron transport chain capacity between QA–QB, QA–PSI acceptor, and QB–PSI acceptor showed a trend of rising up with 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg(GeO2) L–1 and declining with 10.0 mg(GeO2) L–1. On the other hand, dissipated energy via both ΔpH and xanthophyll cycle decreased remarkably compared with the control when GeO2 concentration was below 5.0 mg L–1. Our results suggested that low concentrations of GeO2 could alleviate photoinhibition and 5.0 mg(GeO2) L–1 was the most effective. In addition, we found, owing to exogenous GeO2 treatment, that the main form of this element in apple leaves was organic germanium, which means chemical conversion of germanium happened. The organic germanium might be helpful to allay photoinhibition due to its function of scavenging free radicals and lowering accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which was proven by higher antioxidant enzyme activities.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Diurnal temperature-related variations in photosynthetic enzyme activities of two C4 species of Chenopodiaceae grown in natural environment

Abstract

The effects of the diurnal variations in ambient temperature on some C3 and C4 enzymes in the Salsola dendroides and Suaeda altissima species of Chenopodiaceae family were studied during the intensive vegetation period. Activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (AsAT) were shown to decrease in both species in the afternoon and evening. The activity of the mitochondrial AsAT decreased in S. altissima, remained relatively constant in S. dendroides during the day. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was high in the S. dendroides species in the morning and evening and decreased in the S. altissima species by the evening. Glucose-6-phosphate activated PEPC in both species throughout the day. The study of the redox status-regulated C3 enzymes showed temperature-related increases in NADP-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in both plants, in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity in the S. altissima species, and in NADP-MDH activity in the S. dendroides species in the afternoon.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Physiological responses of Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales) under two light intensities

Abstract

Macroalgae must be able to survive in conditions of different light intensities with no damage to their physiological performance or vital processes. Irradiance can stimulate the biosynthesis of certain photoprotective compounds of biotechnological interest, such as pigments and proteins. Pterocladiella capillacea is a shade-grown alga, which play a role key in the balance of marine ecosystems. In addition, it is considered one of the best sources of bacteriological agar and agarose with a wide pharmacological potential. In order to evaluate the photosensitivity in P. capillacea under 60 (control) and moderate light intensity of 300 μmol(photon) m–2 s–1, photosynthetic performance and chemical composition were assessed. P. capillacea showed photosensitivity without evidence of photodamage. The results indicate the possibility to increase a growth rate and probably infer productivity in long-term cultivation by stimulation at moderate light intensity. Increasing photosynthetic pigment and protein contents were also observed under medium light, an interesting result for functional ingredient approaches.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Chilling-induced reduction of photosynthesis is mitigated by exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations

Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate if chilling stress may be mitigated by elevated CO2 (EC) in Beta vulgaris L. plants. Photosynthetic rate was measured at 21% and 2% O2 after a short-term exposure of 5 h at four different treatments: 360 μmol(CO2) mol–1/25°C (AC); 360 μmol(CO2) mol–1/4°C (AC+LT); 700 μmol(CO2) mol–1/25°C (EC); 700 μmol(CO2) mol–1/4°C (EC+LT). Compared to AC+LT, EC+LT plants showed higher values of CO2 fixation, photochemical activity, and Rubisco amount. These latter invest a higher portion of photosynthetic electron flow to O2, differently from AC+LT plants that promote the regulated thermal dissipation processes. In EC+LT plants, the photosynthetic electron flow to O2 acts as a safety mechanism against the excess of absorbed light, upon return to prechilling conditions, allowing photosynthetic apparatus to maintain its efficiency. In AC+LT plants, the increase of thermal dissipation processes was not adequate to guarantee the PSII photoprotection and the photosynthetic recovery after chilling.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Salicylic acid-induced photosynthetic adaptability of Zea mays L. to polyethylene glycol-simulated water deficit is associated with nitric oxide signaling

Abstract

Salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) form a new group of plant growth substances that cooperatively interact to promote plant growth and productivity. Water deficit (WD) stress is a major limiting factor for photosynthesis, which in turn limits crop yield. However, the mechanism of SA and NO in stimulating photosynthesis has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the SA- and NO-mediated photosynthetic adaptability of maize seedlings to WD in terms of photosynthetic parameters, activities and mRNA levels of CO2 assimilation enzymes. Our results showed that SA alleviated the WD-induced reduction of photosynthetic performance. The activities of Rubisco and Rubisco activase enzymes increased significantly due to SA pretreatment. Moreover, higher transcription rates of Rbc L, ZmRCAα and ZmRCAβ mRNA further confirmed the effects of SA on CO2 assimilation. WD or SA-induced decreases or increases of CO2 assimilation ability were further decreased after c-PTIO addition.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of muskmelon genotypes to different degree of water deficit

Abstract

Morpho-physiological and biochemical analyses were carried out in eight diverse indigenous muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes exposed to different degrees of water deficit (WD). The ability of genotypes MM-7, and especially MM-6, to counteract better the negative effect of WD was associated with maintaining higher relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic rate, efficiency of PSII, and photosynthetic pigments compare to other genotypes. Furthermore, MM-6 showed a better ability to maintain cellular homeostasis than the others. It was indicated by a stimulated antioxidative defense system, i.e., higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants together with lower concentration of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. However, the genotypes MM-2 and MM-5 suffered greatly due to WD and showed reduced RWC, photosynthetic rates, pigment content, and exhibited higher oxidative stress observed as lower antioxidant enzyme activities.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Effects of endogenous ascorbic acid on resistance to high-temperature stress in excised rice leaves

Abstract

Ascorbic acid (Asc) is a major plant antioxidant. L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of Asc biosynthesis in higher plants. Effects of endogenous Asc on resistance to high-temperature stress were studied by using GLDH-overexpressed (GO-2) and GLDH-suppressed transgenic rice (GI-2) as experimental materials. After high-temperature treatment, the maximal quantum yield of PSII was significantly lower in GI-2, and higher in GO-2 compared to wild type rice. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was the highest in GI-2. The higher Asc content resulted in lower lipid peroxidation in GO-2. The contents of chlorophyll, soluble proteins, and Rubisco large and small subunit were positively correlated to the Asc content. These results show that the higher Asc content reduced the accumulation of ROS and maintained the function of rice leaves. We suggest that the higher Asc content could improve the rice resistance to high-temperature stress.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Chlorophyll fluorescence, yield and yield components of bread wheat affected by phosphate bio-fertilizer, zinc and boron under late-season heat stress

Abstract

We examined effects of late-season heat stress (L-SHS) on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence parameters and yield of bread wheat as well as roles of phosphate bio-fertilizer (PB-F) and Zn and B to compensate for the likely effects of heat stress. Factors were planting date (21 November and 5 January to coincide with grain filling to L-SHS) as the main factor, no inoculation (control) and inoculation of the seeds with PB-F as the sub-factor, and foliar application of water (control), Zn, B, and Zn + B as 3 L ha–1 as sub-sub factor. Results revealed that L-SHS reduced maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, efficiency of PSII in the light-adapted state, and the grain yield. Moreover, L-SHS increased the nonphotochemical quenching. The PB-F mitigated the effects of L-SHS on Chl fluorescence, yield, and yield components. Among nutrients, the combined Zn + B was more effective in reducing the effects of L-SHS than that of Zn and B alone. Nevertheless, there was an interaction between foliar nutrients application and PB-F, suggesting that Zn application alone had a profound influence on improving Chl fluorescence parameters and increased yield in combination with PB-F.


Datum: 01.12.2018


Our gratitude and congratulations to our guest editor Julian Eaton-Rye and thanks to all the 167 contributors to the special issue honoring professor Govindjee


Datum: 01.12.2018


A method of a bicolor fast-Fourier pulse-amplitude modulation chlorophyll fluorometry

Abstract

A simple method of a bicolor (multicolor), fast-Fourier, PAM chlorophyll fluorometry has been developed to obtain fluorescence induction curves. Quantum yields of PSII photochemistry were determined with blue and red simultaneously applied pulsed measuring lights for three subsequent 20-min periods of dark-, light-adaptation under actinic light and dark recovery. Measuring lights were cross-combined with blue and red actinic lights and saturation pulses. Coefficients of chromatic divergence were calculated as a ratio of the quantum yields obtained by red measuring light to that obtained by blue measuring light. Adaptation of Ficus benjamina and Hordeum vulgare leaves under blue (but not red) actinic light resulted in the sufficient increase of chromatic divergence. In addition, fraction of active, non(photo)inhibited, PSII centers was shown to be dependent on the color of measuring light. Thus, color of the light sources should be considered when reporting results of parameters evaluated from fluorescence induction curves.


Datum: 01.12.2018


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.






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