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Photosynthesis Research

Current research articles..




The journal Photosynthesis Research is an international journal dealing with both basic and applied aspects of photosynthesis. The journal publishes research at all levels of plant organization: molecular, subcellular, cellular, whole plant, canopy, ecosystem and global.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (photosynthesis):

 - Photosynthetica.



Photosynthesis Research - Abstracts



Economical synthesis of 14 C-labeled aminolevulinic acid for specific in situ labeling of plant tetrapyrroles

Abstract

The application of metabolic radiolabeling techniques to plant tetrapyrroles, i.e., chlorophyll and hemes, is complicated by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient quantities of radiolabeled aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA, the first committed intermediate in the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, is inconvenient to synthesize chemically and is generally not produced in significant quantities in biological systems. Radiolabeled ALA is therefore usually quite expensive and available only in limited quantities. Here, we describe bulk biosynthesis and purification of 14C-labeled ALA from 14C glycine. We first cloned ALA synthase (ALAS) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides into an expression vector for expression and purification as a fusion with maltose-binding protein. We then used the purified ALAS to synthesize ALA in vitro from 14C-labeled glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A. Finally, we used ion exchange chromatography to separate the ALA product from the crude reaction. We achieved conversion and recovery efficiencies of 80–90%, and chlorophyll radiolabeling experiments with the 14C ALA product revealed no detectable non-specific incorporation into proteins. The ability to economically produce robust quantities of 14C ALA using common methodologies provides a new tool for working with tetrapyrroles, which includes both hemes and chlorophylls and their respective binding proteins. This tool allows the specific detection and quantification of the tetrapyrrole of interest from standard acrylamide gels or hybridization transfer membranes via radiographic imaging, which enables a wide array of experiments involving spatial and temporal resolution of the movement of pigments as they are synthesized, incorporated into their target binding proteins, and eventually degraded.


Datum: 25.06.2019


Far-red light acclimation in diverse oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

Abstract

Oxygenic photosynthesis has historically been considered limited to be driven by the wavelengths of visible light. However, in the last few decades, various adaptations have been discovered that allow algae, cyanobacteria, and even plants to utilize longer wavelength light in the far-red spectral range. These adaptations provide distinct advantages to the species possessing them, allowing the effective utilization of shade light under highly filtered light environments. In prokaryotes, these adaptations include the production of far-red-absorbing chlorophylls d and f and the remodeling of phycobilisome antennas and reaction centers. Eukaryotes express specialized light-harvesting pigment–protein complexes that use interactions between pigments and their protein environment to spectrally tune the absorption of chlorophyll a. If these adaptations could be applied to crop plants, a potentially significant increase in photon utilization in lower shaded leaves could be realized, improving crop yields.


Datum: 19.06.2019


Preface: advances in modelling photosynthetic processes in terrestrial plants


Datum: 17.06.2019


Water oxidation in photosystem II

Abstract

Biological water oxidation, performed by a single enzyme, photosystem II, is a central research topic not only in understanding the photosynthetic apparatus but also for the development of water splitting catalysts for technological applications. Great progress has been made in this endeavor following the report of a high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure in 2011 resolving the cofactor site (Umena et al. in Nature 473:55–60, 2011), a tetra-manganese calcium complex. The electronic properties of the protein-bound water oxidizing Mn4OxCa complex are crucial to understand its catalytic activity. These properties include: its redox state(s) which are tuned by the protein matrix, the distribution of the manganese valence and spin states and the complex interactions that exist between the four manganese ions. In this short review we describe how magnetic resonance techniques, particularly EPR, complemented by quantum chemical calculations, have played an important role in understanding the electronic structure of the cofactor. Together with isotope labeling, these techniques have also been instrumental in deciphering the binding of the two substrate water molecules to the cluster. These results are briefly described in the context of the history of biological water oxidation with special emphasis on recent work using time resolved X-ray diffraction with free electron lasers. It is shown that these data are instrumental for developing a model of the biological water oxidation cycle.


Datum: 11.06.2019


Cryptic chlorophyll breakdown in non-senescent green Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

Abstract

Chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown is a diagnostic visual process of leaf senescence, which furnishes phyllobilins (PBs) by the PAO/phyllobilin pathway. As Chl breakdown disables photosynthesis, it appears to have no role in photoactive green leaves. Here, colorless PBs were detected in green, non-senescent leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The PBs from the green leaves had structures entirely consistent with the PAO/phyllobilin pathway and the mutation of a single Chl catabolic enzyme completely abolished PBs with the particular modification. Hence, the PAO/phyllobilin pathway was active in the absence of visible senescence and expression of genes encoding Chl catabolic enzymes was observed in green Arabidopsis leaves. PBs accumulated to only sub-% amounts compared to the Chls present in the green leaves, excluding a substantial contribution of Chl breakdown from rapid Chl turnover associated with photosystem II repair. Indeed, Chl turnover was shown to involve a Chl a dephytylation and Chl a reconstitution cycle. However, non-recyclable pheophytin a is also liberated in the course of photosystem II repair, and is proposed here to be scavenged and degraded to the observed PBs. Hence, a cryptic form of the established pathway of Chl breakdown is indicated to play a constitutive role in photoactive leaves.


Datum: 06.06.2019


Reaction centers of the thermophilic microaerophile, Chloracidobacterium thermophilum ( Acidobacteria ) I: biochemical and biophysical characterization

Abstract

Chloracidobacterium thermophilum is a microaerophilic, anoxygenic member of the green chlorophototrophic bacteria. This bacterium is the first characterized oxygen-requiring chlorophototroph with chlorosomes, the FMO protein, and homodimeric type-1 reaction centers (RCs). The RCs of C. thermophilum are also unique because they contain three types of chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophyll aP esterified with phytol, Chl aPD esterified with Δ2,6-phytadienol, and Zn-BChl aP′ esterified with phytol, in the approximate molar ratio 32:24:4. The light-induced difference spectrum of these RCs had a bleaching maximum at 839 nm and also revealed an electrochromic bandshift that is probably derived from a BChl a molecule near P840+. The FX [4Fe–4S] cluster had a midpoint potential of ca. − 581 mV, and the spectroscopic properties of the P+ F X spin-polarized radical pair were very similar to those of reaction centers of heliobacteria and green sulfur bacteria. The data further indicate that electron transfer occurs directly from A0 to FX, as occurs in other homodimeric type-1 RCs. Washing experiments with isolated membranes suggested that the PscB subunit of these reaction centers is more tightly bound than PshB in heliobacteria. Thus, the reaction centers of C. thermophilum have some properties that resemble other homodimeric reaction centers but also have specific properties that are more similar to those of Photosystem I. These differences probably contribute to protection of the electron transfer chain from oxygen, contributing to the oxygen tolerance of this microaerophile.


Datum: 03.06.2019


High ammonium supply impairs photosynthetic efficiency in rice exposed to excess light

Abstract

Mechanisms involving ammonium toxicity, excess light, and photosynthesis are scarcely known in plants. We tested the hypothesis that high NH4+ supply in presence of high light decreases photosynthetic efficiency of rice plants, an allegedly tolerant species. Mature rice plants were previously supplied with 10 mM NH4+ or 10 mM NO3 and subsequently exposed to 400 µmol m−2 s−1 (moderate light—ML) or 2000 µmol m−2 s−1 (high light—HL) for 8 h. HL greatly stimulated NH4+ accumulation in roots and in a minor extent in leaves. These plants displayed significant delay in D1 protein recovery in the dark, compared to nitrate-supplied plants. These responses were related to reduction of both PSII and PSI quantum efficiencies and induction of non-photochemical quenching. These changes were also associated with higher limitation in the donor side and lower restriction in the acceptor side of PSI. This later response was closely related to prominent decrease in stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation that could have strongly affected the energy balance in chloroplast, favoring ATP accumulation and NPQ induction. In parallel, NH4+ induced a strong increase in the electron flux to photorespiration and, inversely, it decreased the flux to Rubisco carboxylation. Overall, ammonium supply negatively interacts with excess light, possibly by enhancing ammonium transport towards leaves, causing negative effects on some photosynthetic steps. We propose that high ammonium supply to rice combined with excess light is capable to induce strong delay in D1 protein turnover and restriction in stomatal conductance, which might have contributed to generalized disturbances on photosynthetic efficiency.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Time-resolved fluorescence measurements on leaves: principles and recent developments

Abstract

Photosynthesis starts when a pigment in the photosynthetic antennae absorbs a photon. The electronic excitation energy is then transferred through the network of light-harvesting pigments to special chlorophyll (Chl) molecules in the reaction centres, where electron transfer is initiated. Energy transfer and primary electron transfer processes take place on timescales ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds, and can be monitored in real time via time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. This method is widely used for measurements on unicellular photosynthetic organisms, isolated photosynthetic membranes, and individual complexes. Measurements on intact leaves remain a challenge due to their high structural heterogeneity, high scattering, and high optical density, which can lead to optical artefacts. However, detailed information on the dynamics of these early steps, and the underlying structure–function relationships, is highly informative and urgently required in order to get deeper insights into the physiological regulation mechanisms of primary photosynthesis. Here, we describe a current methodology of time-resolved fluorescence measurements on intact leaves in the picosecond to nanosecond time range. Principles of fluorescence measurements on intact leaves, possible sources of alterations of fluorescence kinetics and the ways to overcome them are addressed. We also describe how our understanding of the organisation and function of photosynthetic proteins and energy flow dynamics in intact leaves can be enriched through the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on leaves. For that, an example of a measurement on Zea mays leaves is presented.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Effects of polyploidization on the contents of photosynthetic pigments are largely population-specific

Abstract

The contents of photosynthetic pigments are an important indicator of many processes taking place in the plant body. Still, however, our knowledge of the effects of polyploidization, a major driver of speciation in vascular plants, on the contents of photosynthetic pigments is very sparse. We compared the contents of photosynthetic pigments among natural diploids, natural tetraploids, and synthetic tetraploids. The material originated from four natural mixed-cytotype populations of diploid and autotetraploid Vicia cracca (Fabaceae) occurring in the contact zone between the cytotypes in Central Europe and was cultivated under uniform conditions. We explored whether the contents of pigments are primarily driven by polyploidization or by subsequent evolution of the polyploid lineage and whether the patterns differ between populations. We also explored the relationship between pigment contents and plant performance. We found very few significant effects of the cytotype on the individual pigments but many significant interactions between the cytotype and the population. In pair-wise comparisons, many comparisons were not significant. The prevailing pattern among the significant once was that the contents of pigments were determined by polyploidization rather than by subsequent evolution of the polyploid lineage. The contents of the pigments turned out to be a useful predictor of plant performance not only at the time of material collection, but also at the end of the growing season. Further studies exploring differences in the contents of photosynthetic pigments in different cytotypes using replicated populations and assessing their relationship to plant performance are needed to assess the generality of our findings.


Datum: 01.06.2019


The effect of different light regimes on pigments in Coscinodiscus granii

Abstract

The influence of six different light regimes throughout the photosynthetically active radiation range (from 400 to 700 nm, including blue, green, yellow, red-orange, red, and white) at two intensities (100 and 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1) on pigmentation was assessed for the centric marine diatom Coscinodiscus granii for the first time. Chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin were the dominating pigments in all treatments. The cellular concentrations of light harvesting pigment (Chl a, Chl c1 + c2, and fucoxanthin) were higher at 100 than at 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1 at all wavelengths, with the largest increases at red and blue light. The normalized concentrations of photoprotective pigments (violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and diatoxanthin) were higher at high light intensity than in cells grown at low light intensity. An increase in β-carotene in low light conditions is expected as the increased Chl a was related to increased photosynthetic subunits which require β-carotene (bound to photosystem core). At 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1, yellow light resulted in significantly lower concentration of most of the detected pigments than the other wavelengths. At 100 µmol photons m−2 s−1, W and B light led to statistically lower and higher concentration of most of the detected pigments than the other wavelengths, respectively.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Tribute in memory of Jacques Breton (1942–2018)

Abstract

Jacques Breton spent his 39 years of professional life at Saclay, a center of the French Atomic Energy Commission. He studied photosynthesis with various advanced biophysical tools, often developed by himself and his numerous coworkers, obtaining a large number of new information on the structure and the functioning of antenna and of reaction centers of plants and bacteria: excitation migration in the antenna, orientation of molecules, rate of primary reactions, binding of pigments and electron transfer cofactors. Although it is much too short to illustrate his impressive work, we hope that this contribution will help maintaining the souvenir of Jacques Breton as an active and enthusiastic person, full of qualities, devoted to research and to his family as well. We include personal comments from N. E. Geacintov, A. Dobek, W. Leibl, M. Vos and W. W. Parson.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Thomas John Wydrzynski (8 July 1947–16 March 2018)

Abstract

With this Tribute, we remember and honor Thomas John (Tom) Wydrzynski. Tom was a highly innovative, independent and committed researcher, who had, early in his career, defined his life-long research goal. He was committed to understand how Photosystem II produces molecular oxygen from water, using the energy of sunlight, and to apply this knowledge towards making artificial systems. In this tribute, we summarize his research journey, which involved working on ‘soft money’ in several laboratories around the world for many years, as well as his research achievements. We also reflect upon his approach to life, science and student supervision, as we perceive it. Tom was not only a thoughtful scientist that inspired many to enter this field of research, but also a wonderful supervisor and friend, who is deeply missed (see footnote*).


Datum: 01.06.2019


Selective loss of photosystem I and formation of tubular thylakoids in heterotrophically grown red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

Abstract

We previously found that glycerol is required for heterotrophic growth in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Here, we analyzed heterotrophically grown cells in more detail. Sugars or other organic substances did not support the growth in the dark. The growth rate was 0.4 divisions day−1 in the presence of 400 mM glycerol, in contrast with 0.5 divisions day−1 in the phototrophic growth. The growth continued until the sixth division. Unlimited heterotrophic growth was possible in the medium containing DCMU and glycerol in the light. Light-activated heterotrophic culture in which cells were irradiated by intermittent light also continued without an apparent limit. In the heterotrophic culture in the dark, chlorophyll content drastically decreased, as a result of inability of dark chlorophyll synthesis. Photosynthetic activity gradually decreased over 10 days, and finally lost after 19 days. Low-temperature fluorescence measurement and immunoblot analysis showed that this decline in photosynthetic activity was mainly due to the loss of Photosystem I, while the levels of Photosystem II and phycobilisomes were maintained. Accumulated triacylglycerol was lost during the heterotrophic growth, while keeping the overall lipid composition. Observation by transmission electron microscopy revealed that a part of thylakoid membranes turned into pentagonal tubular structures, on which five rows of phycobilisomes were aligned. This might be a structure that compactly conserve phycobilisomes and Photosystem II in an inactive state, probably as a stock of carbon and nitrogen. These results suggest that C. merolae has a unique strategy of heterotrophic growth, distinct from those found in other red algae.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Unusual features in the photosynthetic machinery of Halorhodospira halochloris DSM 1059 revealed by complete genome sequencing

Abstract

Halorhodospira halochloris is an anaerobic, halophilic, purple photosynthetic bacterium belonging to γ-Proteobacteria. H. halochloris is also characteristic as a thermophilic phototrophic isolate producing bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) b. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of H. halochloris DSM 1059. The genetic arrangement for this bacterium’s photosynthetic apparatus is of particular interest; its genome contains two sets of puf operons encoding the reaction center and core light-harvesting 1 (LH1) complexes having almost identical nucleotide sequences (e.g., 98.8–99.9% of nucleotide identities between two sets of pufLM genes, but 100% of deduced amino acid sequence identities). This duplication of photosynthetic genes may provide a glimpse at natural selection in action. The β-polypeptides of the LH1 complex in purple bacteria usually contain two histidine residues to bind BChl a; however, those of H. halochloris were revealed to have four histidine residues, indicating unusual pigment organization in the LH1 complex of this species. Like in other BChl b-producing phototrophs, the genome of H. halochloris lacks the divinyl reductase genes bciA and bciB. The phylogeny of chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase, which catalyzes committed steps in the synthesis of BChl a and BChl b, indicates that evolution toward BChl b production is convergent. Geranylgeranyl reductase (BchP) of H. halochloris has an insertion region in its primary structure, which could be important for its unusual sequential reduction reactions.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Excitation energy transfer in the far-red absorbing violaxanthin/vaucheriaxanthin chlorophyll a complex from the eustigmatophyte alga FP5

Abstract

This work highlights spectroscopic investigations on a new representative of photosynthetic antenna complexes in the LHC family, a putative violaxanthin/vaucheriaxanthin chlorophyll a (VCP) antenna complex from a freshwater Eustigmatophyte alga FP5. A representative VCP-like complex, named as VCP-B3 was studied with both static and time-resolved spectroscopies with the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of excitation energy migration within the pigment array of the complex. Compared to other VCP representatives, the absorption spectrum of the VCP-B3 is strongly altered in the range of the chlorophyll a Qy band, and is substantially red-shifted with the longest wavelength absorption band at 707 nm at 77 K. VCP-B3 shows a moderate xanthophyll-to-chlorophyll a efficiency of excitation energy transfer in the 50–60% range, 20–30% lower from comparable VCP complexes from other organisms. Transient absorption studies accompanied by detailed data fitting and simulations support the idea that the xanthophylls that occupy the central part of the complex, complementary to luteins in the LHCII, are violaxanthins. Target analysis suggests that the primary route of xanthophyll-to-chlorophyll a energy transfer occurs via the xanthophyll S1 state.


Datum: 01.06.2019


Canopy chlorophyll fluorescence applied to stress detection using an easy-to-build micro-lidar

Abstract

LEDFLEX is a micro-lidar dedicated to the measurement of vegetation fluorescence. The light source consists of 4 blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) to illuminate part of the canopy in order to average the spatial variability of small crops. The fluorescence emitted in response to a 5-μs width pulse is separated from the ambient light through a synchronized detection. Both the reflectance and the fluorescence of the target are acquired simultaneously in exactly the same field of view, as well as the photosynthetic active radiation and air temperature. The footprint is about 1 m2 at a distance of 8 m. By increasing the number of LEDs longer ranges can be reached. The micro-lidar has been successfully applied under full sunlight conditions to establish the signature of water stress on pea (Pisum Sativum) canopy. Under well-watered conditions the diurnal cycle presents an M shape with a minimum (Fmin) at noon which is Fmin > Fo. After several days withholding watering, Fs decreases and Fmin < Fo. The same patterns were observed on mint (Menta Spicata) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) canopies. Active fluorescence measurements with LEDFLEX produced robust fluorescence yield data as a result of the constancy of the excitation intensity and its geometry fixity. Passive methods based on Sun-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) that uses high-resolution spectrometers generate only flux data and are dependent on both the 3D structure of vegetation and variable irradiance conditions along the day. Parallel measurements with LEDFLEX should greatly improve the interpretation of SIF changes.


Datum: 25.05.2019


Diurnal variation in mesophyll conductance and its influence on modelled water-use efficiency in a mature boreal Pinus sylvestris stand

Abstract

Mesophyll conductance (gm) is a critical variable for the use of stable carbon isotopes to infer photosynthetic water-use efficiency (WUE). Although gm is similar in magnitude to stomatal conductance (gs), it has been measured less often, especially under field conditions and at high temporal resolution. We mounted an isotopic CO2 analyser on a field photosynthetic gas exchange system to make continuous online measurements of gas exchange and photosynthetic 13C discrimination (Δ13C) on mature Pinus sylvestris trees. This allowed the calculation of gm, gs, net photosynthesis (Anet), and WUE. These measurements highlighted the asynchronous diurnal behaviour of gm and gs. While gs declined from around 10:00, Anet declined first after 12:00, and gm remained near its maximum until 16:00. We suggest that high gm played a role in supporting an extended Anet peak despite stomatal closure. Comparing three models to estimate WUE from ∆13C, we found that a simple model, assuming constant net fractionation during carboxylation (27‰), predicted WUE well, but only for about 75% of the day. A more comprehensive model, accounting explicitly for gm and the effects of daytime respiration and photorespiration, gave reliable estimates of WUE, even in the early morning hours when WUE was more variable. Considering constant, finite gm or gm/gs yielded similar WUE estimates on the diurnal scale, while assuming infinite gm led to overestimation of WUE. These results highlight the potential of high-resolution gm measurements to improve modelling of Anet and WUE and demonstrate that such gm data can be acquired, even under field conditions.


Datum: 23.05.2019


Effect of sucrose-bound polynuclear iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles on the efficiency of electron transport in the photosystem II membranes

Abstract

Effect of water-soluble and stable sucrose-bound iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles [Fe[III] sucrose complex (FSC)] on the efficiency of electron transport in the photosystem II membranes was studied. FSC significantly increases (by a factor 1.5) the rate of light-induced oxygen evolution in the presence of alternative electron acceptor 2,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (DCBQ). Without DCBQ, FSC only slightly (5%) provides the oxygen evolution. Electron transport supported by pair DCBQ + FSC is inhibited by diuron. Maximum of stimulating effect was recorded at Fe(III) concentration 5 µM. In the case of another benzoquinone electron acceptor (2-phenyl-p-benzoquinone and 2,3-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone) and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, stimulating effect of FSC was not observed. Incubation of PSII membranes at different concentrations with FSC is accompanied by binding of Fe(III) by membrane components but only about 50% of iron can be extracted by membranes from Fe(III) solution at pH 6.5. This result implies the heterogeneity of FSC solution in a buffer. The heterogeneity depends on pH and decreases with its rising. At pH around 9.0 Fe(III), sucrose solution is homogeneous. The study of pH effect has shown that stimulation of electron transport is induced only by iron cations which can be bound by membranes. Not extractable iron pool cannot activate electron transfer from oxygen-evolving complex to DCBQ.


Datum: 16.05.2019


A new method for determination of the photosynthetic pathway in grasses

Abstract

An easy and inexpensive method of determining the photosynthetic pathway in grasses using a dye widely used in microscopy. To evaluate the efficiency of a new histochemical test for determination of the photosynthetic pathway in grasses (Poacea). Leaves of 58 grass species were sectioned transversally, and the sections treated with a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution to clarify the tissue. After discoloration, sections were washed with distilled water and double-stained with astra blue and safranin (1% each in 50% ethanol) for 1 min. Sections were then mounted between microscopy glass slides and coverslips using water. Grass species showing red staining of the bundle sheath cells were considered C4, and species with translucent bundle sheath were considered C3. The results of the histochemical test were then compared with results from carbon isotope composition analysis and the relevant scientific literature. Observations from the histochemical test were congruent with results from δ13C isotope composition analysis, and with data previously presented in the scientific literature. The proposed histochemical test proved efficient for characterization of the photosynthetic pathway in the tested grasses; however, the method should be further tested in a greater number of grass species, encompassing, preferably, all Poacea subfamilies. Future studies may elucidate if the proposed method can effectively be used in other botanical families. Furthermore, additional investigations may determine whether the phenolic compounds indicated by the histochemical test are exclusive to the bundle sheath of C4 grasses and if possible relations exist between these phenolic compounds and the C4 photosynthetic pathway in grasses.


Datum: 15.05.2019


Rapidly reversible chlorophyll fluorescence quenching induced by pulses of supersaturating light in vivo

Abstract

The saturation pulse method provides a means to distinguish between photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, based on the assumption that the former is suppressed by a saturating pulse of light (SP) and that the latter is not affected by the SP. Various types of non-photochemical quenching have been distinguished by their rates of dark relaxation in the time ranges of seconds, minutes, and hours. Here we report on a special type of non-photochemical quenching, which is rapidly induced by a pulse of high-intensity light, when PS II reaction centers are closed, and rapidly relaxes again after the pulse. This high-intensity quenching, HIQ, can be quantified by pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) fluorimetry (MULTI-COLOR-PAM, high sensitivity combined with high time resolution) via the quasi-instantaneous post-pulse fluorescence increase that precedes recovery of photochemical quenching in the 100–400-µs range. The HIQ amplitude increases linearly with the effective rate of quantum absorption by photosystem II, reaching about 8% of maximal fluorescence yield. It is not affected by DCMU, is stimulated by anoxic conditions, and is suppressed by energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The HIQ amplitude is close to proportional to the square of maximal fluorescence yield, Fm′, induced by an SP and varied by NPQ. These properties are in line with the working hypothesis of HIQ being caused by the annihilation of singlet excited chlorophyll a by triplet excited carotenoid. Significant underestimation of maximal fluorescence yield and photosystem II quantum yield in dark-acclimated samples can be avoided by use of moderate SP intensities. In physiologically healthy illuminated samples, NPQ prevents significant lowering of effective photosystem II quantum yield by HIQ, if excessive SP intensities are avoided.


Datum: 14.05.2019


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.






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