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Food Chemistry

Current research articles..




The scientific journal Food Chemistry publishes original research papers dealing with the advancement of the chemistry and biochemistry of foods or the analytical methods/approach used. All papers should focus on the novelty of the research carried out.

Topics include: Chemistry relating to major and minor components of food, their nutritional, physiological, sensory, flavour and microbiological aspects; bioactive constituents; effects of processing; chemistry of food additives, contaminants etc.

The publisher is the Elsevier. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

To search this web page for specific words type "Ctrl" + "F" on your keyboard (Command + "F" on a Mac). Then: type the word you are searching for in the window that pops up!

Additional research articles in the field of food chemistry, see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content:

 - Food & Function.

 - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.



Food Chemistry - Abstracts



Ovotransferrin nanofibril formation in the presence of glycerol or sorbitol

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Zihao Wei, Qingrong Huang

Abstract

Impact of glycerol and sorbitol on assembly of iron-bound ovotransferrin (OVT) into nanofibrils was investigated. Thioflavin T fluorescence result indicated that the presence of glycerol or sorbitol could reduce the rate of OVT fibrillation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that 60% sorbitol could retard hydrolysis of OVT completely for a period of time during thermal treatment, and decoupling hydrolysis from fibril self-assembly helped to identify the building blocks of OVT nanofibrils. OVT nanofibrils were composed of both intact OVT monomers and OVT-derived peptides. Influence of glycerol and sorbitol on morphology of OVT nanofibrils was studied using atomic force microscopy. The presence of glycerol or sorbitol shortened OVT nanofibrils, and the presence of 60% glycerol or sorbitol could increase thickness of OVT nanofibrils. Hopefully, this work may provide new insight about building blocks of protein nanofibrils and impact of polyols on protein fibrillation.


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Dietary flaxseed and turmeric is a novel strategy to enrich chicken meat with long chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with better oxidative stability and functional properties

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Faneshwar Kumar, Praveen K. Tyagi, Nasir Akbar Mir, Kapil Dev, Jubeda Begum, Avishek Biswas, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Pramod K. Tyagi, Divya Sharma, Bharti Sahu, Ashim K. Biswas, Chandra Deo, A.B. Mandal

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.


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Protein polymerization in dumpling wrappers influenced by folding patterns

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Ting Liu, Meng Niu, Gary G. Hou

Abstract

The influences of folding patterns on the protein polymerization in dumpling wrappers were investigated. The dumpling dough sheet after the compounding rollers was folded with various patterns (control with no angle, 15°, 25°, 35° and 45° folding), before going through the sheeting and reduction rolls. Protein secondary structure, free sulfhydryl content, protein electrophoretic profiles, and texture of dumpling wrappers were determined. Results showed that folding could increase the proportion of α-helix conformation, and produce dumpling wrappers with enhanced toughness but reduce wrapper extensibility. The wrapper with 45° folding showed lower -SH content than the control and other folding angles. However, only a few variations in SDS band pattern and intensities were observed at the molecular weight position of around 35 kDa. Briefly, folding process could influence the gluten formation during the preparation of dumpling wrappers; the folding angle at 45° produced stronger gluten network and tougher wrappers.


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Dynamic changes in the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of oats during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Qi Bei, Zhenqiang Wu, Gong Chen

Abstract

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is the preferred method of enhancing the phenolic content of oats, while scientific optimization for improving specific phenolic compounds is limited. In this study, sequential targeting of phenolic conversion in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) of oats was investigated. The results revealed that SHF with adding cellulase at 0, 6 and 12 days could increase the total phenolic content by 4.4%, 67.8% and 59.1%, respectively, over that of SSF. The α-amylase and CMCase activity were highly correlated with the soluble and insoluble phenolic contents in SHF (−6 and −12) systems (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, the content of phenolic fraction, such as ferulic acid, was up-regulated, whereas sinapic acid was down-regulated. These results indicated that the phenolic conversion occurred in SHF, resulting in variation in DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging abilities. This research provided metabolic understanding of the optimization of phenolic compounds to increase the functional ingredient of oats.


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Enzymatic generation of lactulose in sweet and acid whey: Optimization of feed composition and structural elucidation of 1-lactulose

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Christian M. Schmidt, Franziska Balinger, Jürgen Conrad, Johannes Günther, Uwe Beifuss, Jörg Hinrichs

Abstract

Prebiotics are rising in interest in commercial scale productions due to increasing health awareness of consumers. Under bio-economic aspects, sweet and acid whey provide a suitable feed medium for the enzymatic generation of prebiotic lactulose. Since whey has a broad variation in composition, the influence of the feed composition on the concentration of generated lactulose was investigated. The influence of lactose and fructose concentration as well as enzymatic activity of two commercially available β-galactosidases were investigated. The results were evaluated via response surface analysis with a quadratic model containing pairwise interaction terms. The optimal feed composition yielding a theoretical maximal amount of lactulose was determined as 1.28 or 0.74 mol/kg fructose and 0.17 or 0.19 mol/kg lactose with an enzymatic activity of 2.0 or 2.8 μkat/kg for acid (pH 4.4) or sweet (pH 6.6) whey. Furthermore, the major reaction product was isolated and subsequently, the structural identity was elucidated and verified via extensive NMR analysis.


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Characterization of a putative glycoside hydrolase family 43 arabinofuranosidase from <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and its potential use in beer production

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Xiaomin Li, Xizhu Xie, Jun Liu, Dianhui Wu, Guolin Cai, Jian Lu

Abstract

During the mashing process for brewing beer, incomplete degradation of arabinoxylan in barley malt may cause an intense filterability problem. The present study cloned a putative arabinofuranosidase (AnAbf), one of the debranching enzymes, from Aspergillus niger, to explore its application for improving filterability. Recombinant AnAbf (rAnAbf) showed activity towards both synthetic and natural substrates, such as 4-nitrophenyl α-l-arabinofuranoside (pNPαAraf) and malt water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX), which was maximized at a temperature of 50 °C and pH of 5.5. Metal ions did not increase the activity of rAnAbf, indicating a difference in its C-terminal domain from that of type II GH43 family members. rAnAbf also exhibited a synergistic effect with β-xylanase against WEAX. The filtration rate of the wort increased by 12.8% after supplementing with rAnAbf during the initial stage of mashing. A slight decrease in viscosity and an unexpected increase in turbidity were observed.


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Pickering emulsion gel stabilized by octenylsuccinate quinoa starch granule as lutein carrier: Role of the gel network

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Songnan Li, Bin Zhang, Chao Li, Xiong Fu, Qiang Huang

Abstract

Octenylsuccinate quinoa starch (OSQS) granule that stabilized Pickering emulsion gel with different gel networks by modulating the oil volume fraction (Φ) was developed as a carrier for lutein. Pickering emulsion gels stabilized by OSQS were achieved at Φ values ranging from 30% to 60%. Increasing Φ progressively increased the droplet size, storage modulus, and apparent viscosity, resulting in the formation of gel-like structure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that OSQS formed a densely packed layer at the oil/water interface, the degree of aggregation between droplets increased, and the gel network enhanced through droplet flocculation with increasing Φ. After 31 days of storage, the retention index of lutein in the emulsion gel could reach 55.38%, and the corresponding half-life times increased from 12 to 41 days. This study will be useful for designing starch-based Pickering emulsion gel with tunable gel network and desirable characteristics as delivery carrier of sensitive bioactive compounds.


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Combination of solid-phase extraction with microextraction techniques followed by HPLC for simultaneous determination of 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole in beverages

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Chunjian Wu, Li Wang, He Li, Shujuan Yu

Abstract

A sensitive analytical method for the monitoring 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole (2-MI and 4-MI) is desirable due to their carcinogenic property. Here, we propose a highly sensitive method basing on the combination of solid-phase extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction techniques followed by high-performance liquid chromatography to simultaneously determine 2-MI and 4-MI in beverages. Dansyl chloride was used as a derivatizing reagent. Microextraction parameters were optimized by Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Results show that derivatization led to significant improvements in chromatographic behavior for 2-MI and 4-MI due to increased hydrophobicity. The method shows good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9985), satisfactory precision (%RSD ≤ 8.3%) and low limit of quantification (20 ng/mL), and was successfully applied to determine 2-MI and 4-MI in carbonated drinks, beers and energy drinks, achieving satisfactory recoveries (85–101%). This method provides a potential for routine analysis of 2-MI and 4-MI at the nanogram per milliliter level in beverages.


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Chemometric authentication of farming systems of origin of food (milk and ripened cheese) using infrared spectra, fatty acid profiles, flavor fingerprints, and sensory descriptions

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Matteo Bergamaschi, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alessio Cecchinato, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanni Bittante

Abstract

Milk samples from 1264 cows in 85 farms were authenticated for different farming-systems using a 10-fold cross-validated linear-discriminant-analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIRS) and gas-chromatographic fatty-acid (FA) profiles. FTIRS gave correct classification greater than FAs (97.4% vs. 81.1%) during calibration, but slightly worse in validation (73.5% vs 77.3%) and their combination improved the results. All milk samples were processed into ripened model-cheeses, and analyzed by near-infrared-spectrometry (NIRS), by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry for their volatile organic compound (VOCs) fingerprint and by panel sensory profiling (SENS). Farming-system authentication on cheese samples was less efficient than on milk, but still possible. The instrumental methods yielded similar validation results, better than SENS, and their combination improved the correct classification rate. The efficiency of the different technics was affected by specific farming systems. In conclusion, dairy products could be discriminated for farming-systems with acceptable accuracy, but the methods tested differ in sampling procedure, rapidity and costs.


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Infrared enthalpymetric methods: A new, fast and simple alternative for sodium determination in food sauces

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Bruna Tischer, Iberê Damê Teixeira, Paula Freitas Filoda, Keiti Oliveira Alessio, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Fábio Andrei Duarte, Liane Mahlmann Kipper, Gilson Augusto Helfer, Adilson Ben da Costa

Abstract

This work developed a new technique and an application of an existing approach to determine sodium in food sauces, involving enthalpimetric reactions in the infrared. Infrared Thermometric Titration (TT-IR) was utilized, with simple analyzers and low-cost measurement instruments for the acquisition of the surface temperature generated in the sodium precipitation reaction and development of software for the acquisition and processing of data using Raspberry Pi. The sodium was also quantified by Thermal Infrared Enthalpimetry (TIE), a recently developed technique. The rapid and simple quantification of sodium by the TT-IR and TIE showed the possibility of a selective reaction for sodium, using aluminum nitrate, potassium and ammonium fluoride in an acid medium, with reduction of the reagents and without the digestion step in the sample preparation. The results acquired through TT-IR and TIE corroborated the Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometry (FAES) with 96 to 103% and 95 to 102%, respectively.


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Melanoidin formed from fructosylalanine contains more alanine than melanoidin formed from <span class="small-caps">d</span>-glucose with L-alanine

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Ghassan Faisal Mohsin, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Clemens Kanzle, Jan Dirk Epping, David Buhrke, Andrea Hornemann

Abstract

In this study the elemental compositions of melanoidin formed at 160 °C from d-glucose (Glc) and l-alanine (Ala) as well as from fructosylalanine - the corresponding Amadori rearrangement product – were compared. Specific chemical bonds were probed by FTIR spectroscopy. This approach tackles the different chemical pathways for melanoidin formation via the Amadori rearrangement in contrast to the reaction from Glc/Ala. Melanoidins formed from fructosylalanine contain about twice as much nitrogen and therefore amino acid as compared to melanoidin from Glc/Ala and exhibit higher absorption in the UV/Vis. Consequently, melanoidins formed from Glc/Ala contain more sugar degradation products with lower absorption due to a smaller size of the conjugated double bond network.


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Identification and analysis of new α- and β-hydroxy ketones related to the formation of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione in musts and red wines

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Ana Peterson, Céline Cholet, Laurence Geny, Philippe Darriet, Yannick Landais, Alexandre Pons

Abstract

The formation of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND) during red wine aging can contribute to the premature evolution of aroma, characterized by the loss of fresh fruit and development of dried fruit flavors. The identification of two new hydroxy ketones, 2-hydroxy-3-methylnonan-4-one (syn- and anti-ketol diastereoisomers) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (HMND), prompted the investigation of the precursors and pathways through which MND is produced and evolves. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method was optimized for their quantitation in numerous must and wine samples, providing insight into the evolution of MND, HMND, and ketols through alcoholic fermentation and wine aging. Alcoholic fermentation resulted in a significant decrease in MND and HMND and the simultaneous appearance of ketol diastereoisomers. The analysis of 167 dry red wines revealed significant increases in MND and anti-ketol contents through aging and a significant positive correlation between MND and anti-ketols. Additional experiments demonstrated that ketols are precursors to MND during red wine oxidation.


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Effect of EGCG-gelatin biofilm on the quality and microbial composition of tilapia fillets during chilled storage

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Jun Cao, Qi Wang, Tingting Ma, Kunlu Bao, Xiaoying Yu, Zhenhua Duan, Xuanri Shen, Chuan Li

Abstract

The effects of the (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-gelatin biofilm treatment (EGT) on microbial composition and quality of tilapia fillets stored at low temperatures were evaluated. The changes in mechanical properties, microbial reproduction, as well as lipid and protein oxidation during fillets storage were determined. The results showed that EGT reduced the microbial count and the relative abundance of the fillets. And EGT delayed the rate of lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in fillets. Compared with the control group, EGT samples had lower K values (74% on 18 d) and biogenic amines (39 mg/kg for putrescine and 50 mg/kg for cadaverine on 21 d). According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of tilapia fillets was extended by 6 d in the EGT group. Therefore, EGT improved the quality of cryopreserved tilapia fillets and could be considered as a potential method for fish fillet preservation.


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Proteomic analysis of mashua (<em>Tropaeolum tuberosum</em>) tubers subjected to postharvest treatments

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Ana Aguilar-Galvez, Romina Pedreschi, Sebastien Carpentier, Rosana Chirinos, Diego García-Ríos, David Campos

Abstract

Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) is an important food in certain areas of the Andean region, where it is popularly believed to possess medicinal properties. Several studies have previously shown the potential of this tuber as a source of bioactive compounds. Traditionally, the tuber is exposed to the sun before consumption, in order to reduce its bitterness. The present work aims to study, at the proteome level, the differential abundance of proteins in tubers subjected to different postharvest treatments: sun-exposure (SUN), shade (SHA), refrigeration (COLD) and shade combined with sun-exposure (SHA-SUN) compared to recently harvested tubers (INIT). Results showed that sun exposure for prolonged times (9 days) resulted in increased abundance of proteins classified as heat shock proteins, intracellular traffic, disease/defense and protein degradation. Our results reflect that the sun treatment activates defense systems and osmoprotection adjustment against water loss and reactive oxygen species.


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Influence of protein conformation and selected Hofmeister salts on bovine serum albumin/lutein complex formation

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Paulo Henrique C. Paiva, Yara L. Coelho, Luis Henrique M. da Silva, Maximiliano S. Pinto, Márcia Cristina T.R. Vidigal, Ana Clarissa dos S. Pires

Abstract

Protein conformation and the 3D water structure play important roles in the ability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to form stable nanostructures with bioactive molecules. We studied the influence of BSA unfolding and those of two Hofmeister salts, sodium chloride (NaCl) as kosmotrope and sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) as chaotrope, on BSA/lutein binding at pH 7.4 using fluorescence spectroscopy. The BSA/lutein complex formation was entropically driven and lutein was preferentially bound to site III of BSA. The binding constant (104 L mol−1), complex stoichiometry (1:1), and thermodynamic potential for BSA/lutein binding were independent of protein conformation and Hofmeister salts. However, the enthalpic and entropic components of BSA/lutein binding in the presence of NaSCN decreased as the temperature increased. The opposite was observed for BSA/lutein binding in the presence of NaCl and for denatured BSA/lutein binding. Therefore, the BSA conformation and 3D water structure directly affected the BSA/lutein binding thermodynamics.


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First trials to assess the feasibility of grape seed powder (GSP) as a novel and sustainable bentonite alternative

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Elia Romanini, Jacqui M. McRae, Donato Colangelo, Milena Lambri

Abstract

Grape pathogenesis-related proteins can cause haze in wine that is undesirable for consumers. Bentonite is used to remove these proteins but is a non-renewable natural material and reduces wine volume due to poor settling. As a potential bentonite alternative, grape seeds powder (GSP) was added to four wines and two grape juice varieties. Addition to wine required high doses (25–32 g/L) for protein removal and haze prevention and this induced changes to wine composition. By contrast, addition to grape juice prior to fermentation required substantially lower doses of GSP (5 g/L) to prevent haze formation. Further 20 g/L of GSP added to the must induced less changes to wine composition than direct addition of GSP to the wine. No changes were recorded in the efficacy of protein removal by changing the GSP source (red or white grape marc), or by using grape seed roasting. Despite the need for additional trials, these preliminary results suggest that GSP may be considered as a viable alternative to bentonite especially when added to juice prior to fermentation.


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Validation of ultrasonic-assisted switchable solvent liquid phase microextraction for trace determination of hormones and organochlorine pesticides by GC–MS and combination with QuEChERS

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Büşra Yilmaz Durak, Dotse Selali Chormey, Merve Firat, Sezgin Bakirdere

Abstract

QuEChERS and switchable solvent liquid phase microextraction (SS-LPME) were respectively used as pretreatment and preconcentration tools to allow trace determination of selected organochlorine pesticides and hormones by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The effects of principal SS-LPME variables and their interactions were evaluated with a Box-Behnken experimental design. The limits of detection obtained by direct GC–MS determination were enhanced by about 33–115 folds under the optimized SS-LPME conditions. The SS-LPME method was applied to tap water, well water, lake water, medical wastewater and tea samples. Satisfactory recovery results were obtained for all but the tea samples using the conventional calibration plot. Matrix matched calibration standards were used to improve the percent recovery of analytes to almost 100% in the tea samples. The combined QuEChERS and SS-LPME method was applied to tomato samples and matrix matching was also used to significantly improve analyte recoveries.


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Characterization of initial reaction intermediates in heated model systems of glucose, glutathione, and aliphatic aldehydes

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Tianze Wang, Dawei Zhen, Jia Tan, Jianchun Xie, Jie Cheng, Jian Zhao

Abstract

To understand the effect of lipid degradation on Maillard formation of meaty flavors, initial reaction intermediates in model systems of glucose–glutathione with hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were identified by HPLC–MS and by NMR. Besides Amadori compounds, hemiacetals and thiazolidines via addition of sulfhydryl to carbonyl or to the conjugated olefinic bond were found. Concentrations of all intermediates increased with reaction time while degradation of the intermediates with a glutathione moiety helped formation of thiazolidines with cysteinylglycine. The unsaturated aldehydes (E)-2-heptenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal exhibited high reactivity against glucose for glutathione, yielding higher levels of intermediate compounds than from glucose. Heating prepared intermediates reversibly released the original aldehydes, which caused various compounds formed by retro-aldol, oxidation, etc. to react with H2S and NH3. Among them, formation pathways including 3-nonen-2-one, 2-hexanoylfuran, and six dialkylthiophenes (e.g., 2-ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)thiophene) were proposed for the first time.


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Enzymatic synthesis of 1-<em>o</em>-galloylglycerol: Characterization and determination of its antioxidant properties

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Siyu Zhang, Casimir C. Akoh

Abstract

1-o-Galloylglycerol (GG) was synthesized by the enzymatic glycerolysis of propyl gallate (PG) using a food-grade lipase (Lipozyme® 435). The reaction conditions affecting the yield of GG were optimized and a yield of 76.9% ± 1.2% was obtained. GG was characterized by various techniques after being separated from the reaction mixture using liquid-liquid extraction. The water solubility and hydrophilicity of GG were significantly higher than those of gallic acid (GA) and PG. The antioxidant properties, measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assays, showed that GG exhibited the highest scavenging capacity (GG > GA > PG). From the results of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) assays, GG and GA exhibited greater scavenging capacity than PG (GG = GA > PG). These results suggest that GG may be used as a water-soluble antioxidant alternative to GA for food and cosmetic applications.


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Letter to the Editor-In-Chief of Food Chemistry

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s):


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Pea protein based vitamin D nanoemulsions: Fabrication, stability and in vitro study using Caco-2 cells

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Niharika Walia, Lingyun Chen

Abstract

Pea protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were prepared to encapsulate vitamin D with the aim to develop novel non-dairy functional foods for vitamin D fortifications. Homogenization conditions of 20 kpsi and two homogenization cycles were identified as optimal conditions for producing stable nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions exhibited controllable sizes (170–350 nm), good stability with zeta-potential of –25 mV, and high vitamin encapsulation efficiency (94–96%). Cellular uptake efficiency of small sized nanoemulsions (233 nm) was ~2.5 times higher than large sized nanoemulsions (350 nm). Interestingly, protein-based nanoemulsions exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than emulsions prepared using a combination of protein and lecithin. The vitamin D transport efficiency across Caco-2 cells for small sized nanoemulsions (233 nm) was ~5.3 times greater than free vitamin D suspension. This research demonstrated that pea protein can be used as an effective emulsifier for preparing food nanoemulsions, which may enhance vitamin D bioavailability and improve vitamin deficiency status in aged population.


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Comparative metabolic expressions of fermented soybeans according to different microbial starters

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Min Kyung Park, Young-Suk Kim

Abstract

The quality of fermented soybeans can be determined by diverse metabolites produced by microorganisms. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach was applied to investigate the differences in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of fermented soybeans by different microorganisms [e.g., molds, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and other bacteria]. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for volatile metabolites profiles indicated that the fungi group (mold/yeast) was clearly discriminated from the bacteria group (bacteria/LAB). The metabolic pathways related to the formation of volatile metabolites also differed according to microorganisms. In particular, the formation of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols and esters increased in the fungi group, while that of volatiles derived from fatty acids was superior in the bacteria group. In addition, we could determine the microorganism-specific metabolites using a correlation network analysis. This study can provide the fundamental knowledge on the metabolic differences according to the type of microorganisms in fermented soybeans.


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Minerals and their bioavailability in relation to dietary fiber, phytates and tannins from gluten and gluten-free flakes

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Justyna Kiewlicz, Iga Rybicka

Abstract

Flakes are an assortment of grain products mainly consumed for breakfast. Most of them are important source of nutrients including minerals. Twenty commercial flakes from different raw materials were included in this study, both gluten (barley, rye, spelt, wheat) and gluten-free (amaranth, buckwheat, corn, quinoa, millet, oat, rice, teff). The content of minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn), dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), tannins and phytates was determined. Moreover, the phytates:mineral molar ratios and the percentage of the realization of mineral requirements were calculated. For the first time the mineral bioavailability from the gluten and gluten-free flakes was evaluated and compared. It allowed indicating amaranth and teff products as flakes with the highest impact on the realization of daily requirements for minerals, especially for magnesium and iron. This aspect is particularly important for people on a gluten-free diet who often represent mineral deficiencies.


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Computational study on the antioxidant property of coumarin-fused coumarins

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Guirong Wang, Yunping Liu, Ling Zhang, Lin An, Ran Chen, Yin Liu, Qingquan Luo, Ya Li, Han Wang, Yunsheng Xue

Abstract

Fused coumarins recently attracted strong scientific interest due to their potent pharmacological activities. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to evaluate the antiradical activities of a series of coumarin-fused coumarins. By calculating the thermodynamic parameters, three primary mechanisms including hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) were examined. It was found that in the gas and benzene phases, the studied compounds prefer to undergo HAT mechanism, while SPLET is more favored in polar media. The results also reveal the possibility of double HAT and double SPLET mechanisms for compound CC-6. Interestingly, a new polycyclic compound was generated by forming a new C5-O5′ bond during the second HAT process at the 5′-OH in CC-6-R6 radical. In addition, the SPLHAT mechanism is proposed as a competitive pathway for radical scavenging by CC-4, CC-5 and CC-6.


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Corrigendum to “Thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of roasted and unroasted carob (<em>Ceratonia silique</em> L.) powder” [Food Chem. 300 (2019), 125208]

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Libor Červenka, Anna Stępień, Michaela Frühbauerová, Helena Velichová, Mariusz Witczak


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Characterization of two tea glutamate decarboxylase isoforms involved in GABA production

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Xin Mei, Xinlan Xu, Ziyin Yang

Abstract

Tea (Camellia sinensis) contains two active glutamate decarboxylases (CsGADs), whose unclear properties were examined here. CsGAD1 was 4-fold higher than CsGAD2 in activity. Their Km values for L-glutamate were around 5 mM. CsGAD1 and CsGAD2 performed best at 55 and 40 °C, respectively, and were both stimulated by calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Over 40 °C, their calmodulin-binding domains degraded. CsGADs were most active at pH 5.6, and were stimulated by Ca2+/CaM at pH 5.6–6.6, but inactivated at pH 3.6. Ca2+/CaM restored the CsGAD1 activity suppressed by inhibitors. CsGADs and CsCaM were localized to the cytosol. CsGAD1 was more highly expressed in most tissues, while CsGAD2 expression was more induced under stresses. The characteristics we first elucidated here revealed that CsGAD1 is the predominant isoform in tea plant, with CsGAD2 exhibiting a supplementary role under certain conditions. The information will contribute to regulation of GABA tea quality.


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Quantification of folate in food using deconjugase of plant origin combined with LC-MS/MS: A method comparison of a large and diverse sample set

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Petra Ložnjak, Lisa Striegel, Rocío I. Díaz De la Garza, Michael Rychlik, Jette Jakobsen

Abstract

A round robin comparison was performed in order to test the performance of a recently developed LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 6 folate forms. Eighty-nine samples representing the food groups of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, dairy products, meat, and offal were analyzed by two LC-MS/MS methods and a microbiological assay (MA). A plant-origin deconjugase enzyme (Arabidopsis thaliana) for deconjugation of folates (PE-LC-MS/MS), or animal-origin deconjugase (rat serum and chicken pancreas) (AE-LC-MS/MS) was used in the LC-MS/MS methods, each in a single enzymatic step. In contrast, the MA involved tri-enzyme extraction including human plasma as a deconjugase. A significant bias of 17% lower and 25% higher results was found when PE-LC-MS/MS was compared to MA and AE-LC-MS/MS, respectively. The PE-LC-MS/MS provides fast quantification of various folate vitamers and total folate content, which could be a proper substitute to the currently standardized but imprecise and time-consuming microbiological assay in the future.


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Study into the effect of microfluidisation processing parameters on the physicochemical properties of wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) bran

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Yamina De Bondt, Natalia Rosa-Sibakov, Inge Liberloo, Chiara Roye, Davy Van de Walle, Koen Dewettinck, Peter Goos, Emilia Nordlund, Christophe M. Courtin

Abstract

The physicochemical properties of wheat bran have an effect on its technofunctional and nutritional profile. The possibility to induce physicochemical modifications in wheat bran using microfluidisation was investigated. An I-optimal experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microfluidisation processing parameters (pressure, number of passes, bran concentration and initial particle size) on important properties of wheat bran (particle size, microstructure, chemical composition, water retention capacity (WRC), extractability, viscosity and sedimentation). With the parameters used in this study, microfluidisation reduced wheat bran median particle size to 14.8 μm and disintegrated starch granules from the attached endosperm. This coincided with an increased extractability of starch and arabinoxylan. While the initial particle size was of minor importance, a higher pressure, larger number of passes and lower bran concentration during microfluidisation resulted in a smaller particle size, higher WRC and extractability, and an increased viscosity and stability in a 2% wheat bran suspension.


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Effect of enzyme de-esterified pectin on the electrostatic complexation with pea protein isolate under different mixing conditions

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Prasanth K.S. Pillai, Blanca E. Morales-Contreras, Louise Wicker, Michael T. Nickerson

Abstract

Native high methoxy citrus pectin (NP) was de-esterified by pectin methyl esterase to produce modified pectins [MP (42, 37, and 33)] having different degrees of esterification. Complex coacervation between a pea protein isolate (PPI) and each pectin was investigated as a function of pH (8.0–1.5) and mixing ratio (1:1–30:1, PPI-pectin). Complex formation was found to be optimal for biopolymer-mixing ratios of 8:1, 8:1, 25:1 and 25:1 for PPI complexed with NP, MP42, MP37 and MP33, respectively, at pHs 3.6, 3.5, 3.9 and 3.9. And, the critical pHs associated with complex formation (accessed by turbidity) was found to shift significantly to higher pHs as the degree of esterification of the pectin decreased, whereas the shift in the pH corresponding to their initial interactions was minimal with degree of esterification. Complexation of PPI with NP and MP42 greatly improved the protein solubility.


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A two-stage modification method using 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme lowers the <em>in vitro</em> digestibility of corn starch

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Junyan Ren, Shuangdi Chen, Caiming Li, Zhengbiao Gu, Li Cheng, Yan Hong, Zhaofeng Li

Abstract

Samples of granular corn starch were treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) for 20 h using three different methods. These GBE modification methods all increased glycosidic linkage ratio, cyclic glucan content, and proportion of short chains while reducing weight mean molecular weight. The in vitro digestion rates of the modified starches were suppressed. Among these methods, a novel two-stage modification method comprising a 10-h GBE treatment, gelatinization, and a second 10-h GBE treatment, produced samples with the lowest in vitro digestibility. The rapidly digestible starch content was 34.2% lower than that of the control and 18.0% lower than that of the product of one-stage modification with the same duration. Fine structure characterization showed that more cluster structures were proved during the two-stage modification. This two-stage method suppressed the digestibility of corn starch and increased the substrate concentration, showing great potential for the industrial processing of slowly-digestible starchy foods.


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Distribution of phytochemicals and antioxidative potency in fruit peel, flesh, and seeds of Saskatoon berry

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Sabina Lachowicz, Łukasz Seliga, Stanisław Pluta

Abstract

The distributions of total soluble solids, pectins, the sum of polyphenolic and terpenoid compounds as well as the antioxidative potency of fruit and their parts, such as peel, flesh, and seeds of Saskatoon berry genotypes are presented in this work. The contents of individual bioactive compounds of in this fruit fraction of Saskatoon berry cultivars and cultivation clones significantly depended on berry genotype and compounds distribution within particular parts of the fruit. The fruit peel contained mainly anthocyanins, polymerized compounds, hydroxycinnamic acids, triterpenoids, and tetraterpenids, as well as exhibited antioxidant activity. The major compounds identified in the fruit flesh included soluble solids, ash, flavonols. In turn, polymeric procyanidins was determined in the seeds of fruit. Individual parts of Saskatoon berry fruit contained many health-promoting constituents and could be deemed attractive materials for the production of functional foods or dietary supplements.


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A novel high maltose-forming α-amylase from <em>Rhizomucor miehei</em> and its application in the food industry

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Yu-chuan Wang, Hui-fang Hu, Jun-wen Ma, Qiao-juan Yan, Hai-jie Liu, Zheng-qiang Jiang

Abstract

A novel α-amylase gene (RmAmyA) from Rhizomucor miehei was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. RmAmyA showed 70% amino acid identity with the α-amylase from Rhizomucor pusillus. A high α-amylase activity of 29,794.2 U/mL was found through high cell density fermentation. The molecular mass of RmAmyA was determined to be 49.9 kDa via SDS-PAGE. RmAmyA was optimally active at 75 °C and pH 6.0, and it did not require Ca2+ to improve its activity. It exhibited broad substrate specificity towards amylose, amylopectin, soluble starch, pullulan, and cyclodextrins. High level of maltose (54%, w/w) was produced after liquefied starch was hydrolysed with RmAmyA for 16 h. Moreover, the addition of RmAmyA into Chinese steamed bread resulted in 7.7% increment in the specific volume, and 17.2% and 11.5% reduction in the chewiness and hardness, respectively. These results indicate that RmAmyA might be a potential candidate for applications in the food industry.


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Mechanism of lipid metabolism regulation by soluble dietary fibre from micronized and non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes as revealed by their adsorption and activity inhibition of pancreatic lipase

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Huanhuan Chen, Jie Li, Ruixue Yao, Shoulei Yan, Qingzhang Wang

Abstract

Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) of micronized and non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes were investigated based on its adsorption and activity inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL) by using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and modification. Results showed that SDF2 (SDF from micronized powders of lotus root nodes) had stronger PL adsorption and enzyme activity inhibition than SDF1 (SDF from non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes). Specifically, SDF2 showed more binding sites than SDF1 in PL. There were hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions between SDF and PL, with Trp on PL probably serving as the main binding site. Carboxyl groups exhibited a stronger inhibition on PL by carboxymethyl and hydroxypropyl modification. The common mechanisms between SDF1 and SDF2 can be attributed to the combination between Trp and carboxyl groups, while the differences may be generated by the variations in structures or chemical groups induced by micronization.

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The role of ROS-induced change of respiratory metabolism in pulp breakdown development of longan fruit during storage

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Yixiong Lin, Hetong Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, Mengshi Lin, Mark A. Ritenour, Yifen Lin

Abstract

Compared to the control longans, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated longans exhibited higher index of pulp breakdown, higher fruit respiration rate, higher activities of pulp phosphohexose isomerase (PGI), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but lower activity of pulp nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK). H2O2-treated longans also exhibited lower total activities of pulp glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), lower levels of pulp NADP(H), but higher levels of pulp NAD(H). These data indicated that H2O2-stimulated longan pulp breakdown was owing to a decreased proportion of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the increased proportions of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and cytochrome pathway (CCP) in total respiratory pathways. These findings further revealed that H2O2 could enhance respiration rate, and thus accelerate pulp breakdown occurrence and shorten the shelf life of longan fruit.


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Multi-mycotoxins analysis in liquid milk by UHPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS after magnetic solid-phase extraction based on PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Yan Zhao, Yun-Cong Yuan, Xiao-Lin Bai, Yi-Ming Liu, Gui-Fang Wu, Fa-Shu Yang, Xun Liao

Abstract

A simple and rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method using PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-MWCNTs-MNP) as absorbents is proposed for isolation and enrichment of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), aflatoxin M2 (AFM2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zeralanol (α-ZAL), β-zeralanol (β-ZAL), α-zeralenol (α-ZOL), and β-zeralenol (β-ZOL) from liquid milk. Combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography Q-Exactive high resolution mass spectrometry, simultaneous qualification of these mycotoxins was achieved with sensitivity and specificity. The proposed method showed a good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.995), high sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.005–0.050 μg/kg and limit of quantification in the range of 0.015–0.150 μg/kg), adequate recovery (81.8–106.4%), and good repeatability (intra-day precision in the range of 2.1–8.5% and inter-day precision in the range of 3.9–11.7%). It has been successfully applied to the determination of 13 mycotoxins in real liquid milk samples.


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Two aspects of honeydew honey authenticity: Application of advance analytical methods and chemometrics

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Vesna Vasić, Slađana Đurđić, Tomislav Tosti, Aleksandra Radoičić, Dražen Lušić, Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica, Živoslav Tešić, Jelena Trifković

Abstract

Taking into account a growing market and small number of articles related to honeydew honey, a metabolomic approach associated with multivariate analysis and modelling was proposed to discriminate five varieties of honey. Advanced analytical techniques were used for determination of 20 elements, 14 carbohydrates and stable carbon isotope ratio. No chemical marker has been found within sugar compounds, but several elements (Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Al, Co, Ni, Se) were marked as characteristic of honey type and allow classification of three botanical origins (Abies alba, Quercus frainetto, Quercus ilex). Sugars turanose, trehalose, arabinose and raffinose, elements Ba, Sr, P, Cd and Se, and δ13C values of honey, have different concentrations in honeys of the same botanical origin but harvested in different season. In addition to a confirmation of authenticity in terms of production, the values of δ13C of protein could be a good indicator of botanical origin.


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Characterization of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruit beers

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Mirella Nardini, Ivana Garaguso

Abstract

Total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile by HPLC, and antioxidant activity of ten fruit beer produced adding fruits during the fermentation process were analyzed. The fruits were: cherry, raspberry, peach, apricot, grape, plum, orange and apple. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and flavonoids content were considerably higher in most of the fruit beers in respect to conventional, no-fruit beers. Cherries beers exhibit the highest values, followed by grape, plum and orange beers. An enrichment was observed in catechin and quercetin content in all fruit beers examined. Myricetin and resveratrol were also detected in most of the fruit beers. Among phenolic acids, an enrichment in chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids was measured in most of the fruit beers in respect to conventional beers. Our findings show that fruits addition during the fermentation process considerably increased the antioxidant activity of beer and qualitatively and quantitatively improved its phenolics profile.


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Pyranoanthocyanins in bilberry (<em>Vaccinium myrtillus</em> L.) wines fermented with <em>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</em> and their evolution during aging

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Shuxun Liu, Oskar Laaksonen, Wei Yang, Bolin Zhang, Baoru Yang

Abstract

Fifteen vitisin A-type pyranoanthocyanins (vAPs) were determined in bilberry wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The fermentation involving S. pombe enhanced the production of vAPs compared to the fermentation with pure S. cerevisiae. The formation of vAPs correlated significantly with the decrease in the content of monomeric anthocyanins and pyruvic acid during 12 months of aging. vAPs were more stable than their corresponding monomeric anthocyanins. Methylation in the B-ring and glycosylation with galactose and arabinose further improved the stability of vAPs. Aging for 12 months led to depletion of pyruvic acid and reduction of over 50% of monomeric anthocyanins. The content of vAPs increased by 26–54% during the first six months of aging, followed by a 2.2–10.2% reduction over the following six months. More residual pyruvic acid in S. pombe wines after fermentation consequently enhanced the generation of vAPs during aging.


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Water status in meat from pig breeds strongly differing in growth performances

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Gizella Aboagye, Martina Zappaterra, Luca Laghi, Stefania Dall'Olio, Massimiliano Petracci, Leonardo Nanni Costa

Abstract

This research compared the distribution and mobility of water in the longissimus thoracis muscle of 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbred pigs differing in growth performances. The Apulo-Calabrese and crossbreed pigs were fed the same diet and slaughtered at 135 and 155 kg live weight, respectively. Besides meat quality measurement, water status was assessed from transverse relaxation time (T2) weighted signals registered by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). A mixed model indicated that Apulo-Calabrese pigs had higher a* (P-value < 0.0001), chroma (P-value < 0.0001) and total intensity (P-value = 0.011) values. A Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples from Apulo-Calabrese had higher scores along Principal Component (PC) 2 (P-value = 4.07 × 10−5) and lower scores along PC3 (P-value = 1.50 × 10−7). However PC2 and PC3 explained a low fraction of the total variance, suggesting that few differences characterize meat quality traits of the two genetic types.


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Impact of enrichment with egg constituents on water status in gluten-free rice pasta – nuclear magnetic resonance and thermogravimetric approach

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Magdalena Witek, Ireneusz Maciejaszek, Krzysztof Surówka

Abstract

Effects of freeze-dried egg white, yolk and whole egg enrichment on water behaviour in fresh pasta dough, dried and cooked rice pasta with respect to control samples were studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and thermogravimetric analysis. Enrichments caused lower mobility of water (T2) localised within the starch-protein matrix in fresh dough as well as dried pasta. Water compartmentalization was also downgraded in cooked products. Water fractions with different T2 values were linked to temperature peaks at the first derivative of the thermogravimetric (DTG) curve. From the DTG curve strong interaction of water molecules with proteins of egg white was revealed. Egg proteins also influenced viscoelastic properties of dough, and enhanced the firmness and chewiness of cooked pasta. Structural changes induced by various types of enrichment were reflected in the different molecular mobility at the water-matrix interface (T1). The enrichments also altered the colour and cooking properties.

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Graphical abstract for this article


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Water sorption and hydration in spray-dried milk protein powders: Selected physicochemical properties

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Valentyn Maidannyk, David J. McSweeney, Sean A. Hogan, Song Miao, Sharon Montgomery, Mark A.E. Auty, Noel A. McCarthy

Abstract

Low and high protein dairy powders are prone to caking and sticking and can also be highly insoluble; with powder storage conditions an important factor responsible for such issues. The aim of this study focused on the bulk and surface properties of anhydrous and humidified spray-dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders (protein content ~40, 50, 60, 70 or 80%, w/w). Water sorption isotherms, polarized light and scanning electron micrographs showed crystallized lactose in low protein powders at high water activities. High protein systems demonstrated increased bulk diffusion coefficients compared to low protein systems. Glass transition temperatures, α-relaxation temperatures and structural strength significantly decreased with water uptake. CLSM measurements showed that humidified systems have slower real time water diffusion compared to anhydrous systems. Overall, the rate of water diffusion was higher for low protein powders but high protein powders absorbed higher levels of water under high humidity conditions.


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Harnessing slaughterhouse by-products: From wastes to high-added value natural food preservative

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Rémi Przybylski, Laurent Bazinet, Loubna Firdaous, Mostafa Kouach, Jean-François Goossens, Pascal Dhulster, Naïma Nedjar

Abstract

Blood, from slaughterhouses, is an inevitable part of meat production, causing environmental problems due to the large volumes recovered and its low valorization. However, the α137–141 peptide, a natural antimicrobial peptide, can be obtained after hydrolysis of hemoglobin, the main constituent of blood red part. To recover it at a sufficient concentration for antimicrobial applications, a new sustainable technology, called electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF), was investigated. The α137–141 concentration was increased about 4-fold at a feed peptide concentration of 8% with an enrichment factor above 24-fold. This feed peptide concentration also needed the lowest relative energy consumption. Moreover, this peptide fraction protected meat against microbial growth, as well as rancidity, during 14 days under refrigeration. This peptide fraction was validated as a natural preservative and substitute for synthetic additives against food spoilage. Finally, producing antimicrobial/antioxidant peptide from wastes by EDUF fits perfectly with the concept of circular economy.


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Microwave pretreatment promotes the annealing modification of rice starch

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Yejun Zhong, Xiaoyue Xiang, Jincheng Zhao, Xiaohuang Wang, Ruiyun Chen, Jianguo Xu, Shunjing Luo, Jianyong Wu, Chengmei Liu

Abstract

Early indica rice starch can only be modified to a small extent by annealing treatment (ANN), which limits its application. Microwave pretreatment (MW) with different intensity was used to enhance the effectiveness of ANN, and single ANN or MW treatments were used as controls. MW pretreatments per se exhibited insignificant or minor effect on the starch. However, MW pretreatment with appropriate intensity could significantly promote the structural and physicochemical modification of the starch in subsequent ANN, including the enhancement of long- and short-range crystalline structures, the increases in gelatinization enthalpy, particle size, peak viscosity, breakdown and G' value, and the decreases in tan δ value. The MW pretreatment could untangle the entanglements between starch chains by inducing violent movement of the chains, which facilitated the molecular rearrangement and interaction during subsequent ANN, thereby promoting the structural and physicochemical changes. This study provided new insights into the annealing mechanism of starch.


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In vitro digestibility characteristics of octenyl succinic acid (OSA) modified starch with different amylose content

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Madai Lopez-Silva, Luis A. Bello-Perez, Victor M. Castillo-Rodriguez, Edith Agama-Acevedo, Jose Alvarez-Ramirez

Abstract

The effect of amylose content in the in vitro digestibility of non-modified and OSA-modified corn starch was studied. Corn starches with different amylose content (waxy, normal and Hylon VII) were treated with 3% OSA solution. In vitro digestibility tests showed that OSA treatment reduced the fraction of fastly digestible starch, an effect that was more pronounced for cooked starch. The amylose content was negatively linked to the decrease of in vitro digestion. HPSEC analysis was conducted to gain insights on the effect of OSA-treatment on in vitro digestibility. The results showed an increase of the molecular weight of starch chains. Besides, the molecular weight increase was similar for amylose and amylopectin fractions. This suggests that OSA could be acting as a cross-linking agent between starch chains, reducing the susceptibility to amylolysis. Overall, OSA treatment induced the formation of more complex starch chains, offering more resistance for amylolytic reactions.


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Influence of moderate electric fields in β-lactoglobulin thermal unfolding and interactions

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Rui M. Rodrigues, Zita Avelar, António A. Vicente, Steffen B. Petersen, Ricardo N. Pereira

Abstract

In this study, the effects of moderate electric fields during thermal denaturation of β-lactoglobulin were examined through an in situ circular dichroism approach, complemented by intrinsic extrinsic fluorescence analysis. Results have shown that the effects of electric fields in protein unfolding were linearly dependent on the applied electric field intensity (V/cm) and increased by the use of low electric frequencies – i.e. 50 to 200 Hz. These electric effects caused significant changes on β-lactoglobulin melting temperature, unfolded conformation and subsequent intermolecular interactions, revealed by the increase of surface hydrophobicity (ANS affinity) and higher conservation of retinol binding. The obtained data provides a clear evidence that moderate electric fields contribute to distinct folding/unfolding of β-lactoglobulin, resulting in structural modifications. These findings are relevant for (bio)-technological applications involving electric fields processing, bringing new insights for the development of innovative strategies to control protein function and tune production of functional protein systems.


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Characterization of a new hemihydrate rebaudioside B crystal having lower aqueous solubility

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Jinping Dong, Zheng Yang

Abstract

Poor aqueous solubility of some minor steviol glycosides (SGs) has prevented their potential widespread usage as non-nutritional high intensity sweeteners in beverage industry. Rebaudioside B (reb B) is one of the minor SGs found in stevia leaf, and has a better taste quality than many of the major SGs. However, reb B suffers from poor aqueous solubility and low dissolution rate, which greatly limits its application, especially in beverages. In our effort to enhance its solubility by using natural means, we discovered that under certain conditions reb B forms hemihydrate crystal, which has much lower solubility and dissolution rate than commercial powder reb B product. The crystal was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This may offer more insight into the interaction of SGs with water at molecular level, and therefore provide new guidance on current efforts to enhance the solubility of SGs.


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Storage stability and degradation kinetics of bioactive compounds in red palm oil microcapsules produced with solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide: A comparison with the spray-drying method

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Wan Jun Lee, Chin Ping Tan, Rabiha Sulaiman, Yen Yi Hee, Gun Hean Chong

Abstract

Solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide (SEDS) and spray drying (SD) were used to microencapsulate red palm oil (RPO) to prolong the functionality of carotenes and vitamin E. The protective effects provided by SEDS and SD were evaluated in terms of the oxidative stability (65 °C for 35 days), fatty acid compositions, color change and degradation kinetics of carotenes and vitamin E (25 °C, 45 °C, 65 °C, and 85 °C for up to 198 days). SEDS microcapsules (SEDS-M) were the most oxidatively stable (total oxidation (Totox): 26.5), followed by SD microcapsules (SD-M) (34.9) and RPO (56.7). Degradation of carotenes and vitamin E fitted well a first-order kinetic model (average absolute relative deviation = 2–16%). SEDS-M offered better protection to vitamin E (Ea = 36 kJ/mol), whereas SD-M provided better protection for α + β carotene (Ea = 29 kJ/mol). Overall, encapsulation protected RPO during storage, with SEDS-microencapsulated RPO performing better than SD-microencapsulated RPO.


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Development of a novel method for specific detection of genetically modified Atlantic salmon, AquAdvantage, using real-time polymerase chain reaction

Publication date: 1 February 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 305

Author(s): Keisuke Soga, Kosuke Nakamura, Takumi Ishigaki, Shinya Kimata, Kiyomi Ohmori, Masahiro Kishine, Junichi Mano, Reona Takabatake, Kazumi Kitta, Hiroyuki Nagoya, Kazunari Kondo

Abstract

Genetically modified (GM) Atlantic salmon, AquAdvantage (AquAd), was the first GM animal approved officially for human consumption. Many countries monitor the use of this product under their GM regulations, but a pragmatic system for AquAd-specific detection is needed. Here, we developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction method with high sensitivity for detection of AquAd in foods. This method showed high specificity for the AquAd transgene and the detection limit was 12.5–25 targeted DNA copies per test reaction. An inter-laboratory study using the method developed demonstrated reproducibility at >0.1% (w/w) AquAd content.


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A highly sensitive competitive immunosensor based on branched polyethyleneimine functionalized reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles modified electrode for detection of melamine

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Qunxiang Ren, Xiaoyan Shen, Yingying Sun, Ronghua Fan, Jun Zhang

Abstract

Branched polyethyleneimine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (BPEIGn) was prepared by a one-step reaction, catalyzed by NaOH, using branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) and graphene oxide (GO) without reductant hydrazine hydrate or sodium borohydride. The branched polyethylenimine acted as both a grafting agent and a reducing agent of GO. An competitive electrochemical immunosensor based on the Au/sodium mercaptopropanesulfonate/BPEIGn/gold nanoparticles/melamine (Au/MPS/BPEIGn/AuNPs/Mel) modified electrode was constructed for the determination of melamine. The double amplification of BPEIGn and AuNPs increased the sensitivity of the sensor. The melamine was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) containing K3(Fe(CN)6]/K4[Fe(CN)6]. Under optimized conditions, the proposed melamine immunosensor showed a linear relationship in the concentration range of 1 × 10−6 to 1 μM, with a detection limit of 2.66 × 10−7 μM.


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Influence of nanoencapsulated lutein on acetylcholinesterase activity: <em>In vitro</em> determination, kinetic parameters, and <em>in silico</em> docking simulations

Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Cristiane Grella Miranda, Priscila Dayane Freitas dos Santos, Jéssica Thaís do Prado Silva, Fernanda Vitória Leimann, Bianca Ferreira Borges, Rui Miguel Abreu, Rafael Porto Ineu, Odinei Hess Gonçalves

Abstract

Lutein is a bioactive found in dark leafy vegetables that may be used as a nutraceutical agent in foodstuff and an inhibitor of key enzymes of the human body such as those involved in the cholinergic system. However, its high hydrophobicity leads to low bioavailability and must be overcome if lutein is to be added in foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of nanoencapsulated lutein in the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The in vitro study was carried out using water in order to evaluate the impact of encapsulation on the hydrophilicity of lutein. In vitro assays showed that lutein, both free and nanoencapsulated, presented a mixed-type inhibition behavior, and encapsulated lutein was able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity even in an aqueous medium. Inhibition was also showed by the in silico docking results which show that lutein interacted with the pocket region of the enzyme.


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Prediction of quality parameters in straw wine by means of FT-IR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data processing

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Riccardo Croce, Cristina Malegori, Paolo Oliveri, Isabella Medici, Alessandro Cavaglioni, Claudio Rossi

Abstract

This study represents the first attempt to combine mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and multivariate data processing for prediction of alcohol degree, sugars content and total acidity in straw wine. 302 Italian samples, representing different vintages, production regions and grape varieties, were analysed using FT-MIR spectroscopy and reference methods. New regression functions based on a combination of Orthogonal Signal Correction and Partial Least Squares regression are proposed for prediction of quality parameters: this approach allows overcoming the issue of matrix complexity, reducing spectral interferences and enhancing the information embodied in fingerprinting data. The models proposed are characterised by an excellent reliability, with low error in prediction (alcohol: 0.28%; sugars: 9.9 g/L; acidity: 0.29 g/L) comparable both to reference methods and table wine models. Results demonstrate that vibrational spectroscopic, combined with a proper multivariate data strategy, represent a suitable strategy for the quick and non-destructive assessment of quality parameters of straw wine.


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Oligomerization of reactive carbonyls in the presence of ammonia-producing compounds: A route for the production of pyridines in foods

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Rosario Zamora, Cristina M. Lavado-Tena, Francisco J. Hidalgo

Abstract

The reactions of different lipid-derived reactive carbonyls with ammonia-producing compounds were studied to investigate the formation of pyridines in foods. 2-Alkyl, 3-alkyl-, and 2,5-dialkylpyiridines were produced by oligomerization of short-chain aldehydes in the presence of ammonia. Thus, acetaldehyde/crotonaldehyde mixtures and 2,4-alkadienals were the main responsible for the formation of 2-alkylpyridines; acrolein or 2,4-alkadienals were needed for the formation of 3-alkylpyridines; and 2-alkenals were responsible for the formation of 2,5-dialkylpyridines. On the contrary, 2,6-dialkylpyridines were produced by cyclization of unsaturated ketones. Reactions pathways for formation of these pyridines are proposed, and confirmed by isotopic labelling experiments. Aldehydes and ketones required for their formation are produced in the course of lipid oxidation. Therefore, pyridine formation seems to be an additional consequence of the lipid oxidation pathway. This new knowledge can employed for the optimization of reactions to achieve the desired targeted flavor generation during food processing.


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Linking volatile and non-volatile compounds to sensory profiles and consumer liking of wild edible Nordic mushrooms

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Heikki Aisala, Hanna Manninen, Timo Laaksonen, Kaisa M. Linderborg, Takao Myoda, Anu Hopia, Mari Sandell

Abstract

Current information on the links between the chemistry and hedonic liking of edible mushrooms is scarce. In this study, 84 consumers evaluated the appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall liking of samples of Nordic edible wild mushroom species. Subsequently, multivariate models on the effects of non-volatile compounds, odor-contributing volatile compounds, sensory attributes and hedonic likings were created. The non-volatile compounds were measured with quantitative NMR. The five studied mushroom species were different in their sugar and acid contents. Three consumer clusters were found with species*cluster interactions. Correlations with sensory attributes and chemical components were found, and the multivariate models indicated predictor attributes for each consumer cluster. The results indicate that the sensory properties could be correlated to both volatile and non-volatile compounds, there are consumer clusters with differing likings as regards mushrooms, and these clusters are heterogenic groups with no simple factors such as age explaining their liking scores.


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A label-free colorimetric aptasensor based on controllable aggregation of AuNPs for the detection of multiplex antibiotics

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Yang-Yang Wu, Pengcheng Huang, Fang-Ying Wu

Abstract

We devise a novel colorimetric aptasensor for multiplex antibiotics based on an ss-DNA fragment coordinately controlling gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation. The multifunctional aptamer (Apt) was elaborately designed to be adsorbed on AuNPs surfaces acting as a binding element for antibiotics and a molecular switch. Chloramphenicol (CAP) and tetracycline (TET) were selected as the model antibiotics. When one kind of antibiotics was added, the specifically recognized fragment of Apt can bind to it and dissociated, and the non-specific one coordinately controls AuNPs aggregation under high-salt conditions. Hence, different color changes of AuNPs solution can be used as the signal readout. The aptasensor exhibited remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for separate detection of TET and CAP, and the detection limits are estimated to be 32.9 and 7.0 nM, respectively. The analysis with the absorption spectroscopy and the smartphone are applied to detect antibiotics in real samples with consistent results and desirable recoveries.


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High-resolution mass spectrometry-based selection of peanut peptide biomarkers considering food processing and market type variation

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Maxime Gavage, Kaatje Van Vlierberghe, Christof Van Poucke, Marc De Loose, Kris Gevaert, Marc Dieu, Patsy Renard, Thierry Arnould, Nathalie Gillard

Abstract

To protect allergic patients and guarantee correct food labeling, robust, specific and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods could overcome the limitations of current detection techniques. The first step in the development of an MS-based method is the identification of biomarkers, which are, in the case of food allergens, peptides. Here, we implemented a strategy to identify the most salient peptide biomarkers in peanuts. Processed peanut matrices were prepared and analyzed using an untargeted approach via high-resolution MS. More than 300 identified peptides were further filtered using selection criteria to strengthen the analytical performance of a future, routine quantitative method. The resulting 16 peptides are robust to food processing, specific to peanuts, and satisfy sequence-based criteria. The aspect of multiple protein isoforms is also considered in the selection tree, an aspect that is essential for a quantitative method’s robustness but seldom, if ever, considered.


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Identification of ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate molecular species from different aquatic products by NPLC/Q-Exactive-MS

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Rui Wang, Qinsheng Chen, Yu Song, Yi Ding, Peixu Cong, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue

Abstract

Ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) is a type of phosphonosphingolipids with potential trophic activity. In this work, complicated CAEP species from different aquatic products were comprehensively identified and semi-quantified by utilizing normal phase liquid chromatography/Q-Exactive mass spectrometry (NPLC/Q-Exactive-MS). We elucidated the fragment schemes of CAEP molecules and found the presence of methylated CAEP (Me-CAEP) species. Remarkably, quantitative results revealed that Loligo chinensis had the highest CAEP content of 4.9 ± 0.4 mg/g dry weight and the most complex molecular species composition, whereas Asterias amurenis had the lowest CAEP content of 1.9 ± 0.6 mg/g dry weight. The most common molecule was CAEP (d19:3–16:0). Additionally, statistical analysis revealed that five aquatic products can be effectively distinguished from their CAEP species; thus, CAEP molecules can play an important role in identifying processed products from aquatic products.


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Editorial Board

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s):


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Calendar

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s):


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Fluorescence assay for three organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural products based on magnetic-assisted fluorescence labeling aptamer probe

Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Mingdi Jiang, Chen Chen, Jingbo He, Hongyan Zhang, Zhixiang Xu

Abstract

There has been increasing recent concern about the agricultural use of organophosphorus pesticides. A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for the detection of three organophosphorus pesticides has therefore been developed using 6-carboxy-fluorescein labeling aptamer as the probe and functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as the separation carrier. The aptamer hybridized with complementary DNA conjugated on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles to form a magnetic aptamer-complementary DNA complex. Upon introducing the target organophosphorus pesticide, the aptamer departed from the complementary DNA, resulting in the fluorescence signal. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for trichlorfon, glyphosate, and malathion were 72.20 ng L−1, 88.80 ng L−1, and 195.37 ng L−1, respectively. The method was applied for the detection of trichlorfon, glyphosate, and malathion in spiked lettuce and carrot samples. The recoveries were in the range of 79.4%–118.7%, which were in good agreement with those obtained by gas chromatography, and the relative standard deviations were also acceptable. The method therefore has high sensitivity, so provides a means for the detection of multiple organophosphorus pesticides.


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Phytochemical profile and antioxidative properties of <em>Plinia trunciflora</em> fruits: A new source of nutraceuticals

Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Giuseppe Mannino, Anna Perrone, Cristina Campobenedetto, Adele Schittone, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Carla Gentile

Abstract

This study evaluated the polyphenol profile and the antioxidative properties of Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel fruits. Folin-Ciocalteau and pH-jumping methods indicated that these berries are a major source of antioxidant polyphenols (1201.05 mg GAE/100 g FW), particularly anthocyanins. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified cyanidin glycosides as the main components. Flavon-3-ols and hydrolysable-tannin were also found. CAA assay showed that extracts of P. trunciflora fruits prevent lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells with higher efficacy than other colorful fruits (CAA50 935.25 mg FW/mL cell medium). Moreover, our results suggested that the observed antioxidant protection involve both redox active properties of P. trunciflora components, as measured by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, and upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes MnSOD and GPx, as evaluated by qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data provided evidence on the potential of P. trunciflora fruit as a very rich source of natural antioxidant molecules.


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Application of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap™) for the determination of beta-casein phenotypes in cow milk

Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Duc Doan Nguyen, Vicky Ann Solah, Francesco Busetti, Grant Smolenski, Terry Cooney

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the β-CN phenotypes in cow milk collected from HF and cross-bred HF dairy cattle in Phu Dong, Vietnam. In total, 85 samples of raw milk were collected from 85 individual cows. Beta-casein (β-CN) phenotypes in cow milk were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS).The results showed that three β-CN variants A1, A2 and I were detected and identified in the milk samples. Five β-CN phenotypes A1A1, A1A2, A1I, A2A2 and A2I were found with percentages of 0.035, 0.400, 0.059, 0.482 and 0.024, respectively. The higher proportion of β-CN phenotype A2A2 compared to other phenotypes was expected because of changes in dairy cow breeding in Phu Dong, Vietnam.


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The effect of sourdough fermentation on <em>Triticum dicoccum</em> from Garfagnana: <sup>1</sup>H NMR characterization and analysis of the antioxidant activity

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Raffaele Colosimo, Morena Gabriele, Mario Cifelli, Vincenzo Longo, Valentina Domenici, Laura Pucci

Abstract

The fermentation of Triticum dicoccum with sourdough enhances the nutritional aspects of the final product by the enrichment of several compounds with potential medical and biological activity, hence, could improve the health of consumers. This study analyzed the chemical composition of fermented spelt flour from Garfagnana (Province of Lucca, Tuscany) by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and its in vitro antioxidant properties by FRAP and DPPH tests. Beyond this, the ex vivo CAA-RBC assay determined the cellular antioxidant activity on human erythrocytes under oxidative condition. Carbohydrate reduction was observed, while amino acids, organic acids and aromatic compounds with potential antioxidant activity increased during the fermentation time. Moreover, both in vitro and ex vivo outcomes showed an improved antioxidant profile. As a possible industrial application, the fermentation process adopted in this research could be reproduced on a large scale for the commercialization of the products by the food industry.


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Effect of methyl jasmonate on carotenoids biosynthesis in germinated maize kernels

Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Hao Luo, Weiwei He, Dajing Li, Yihong Bao, Asad Riaz, Yadong Xiao, Jiangfeng Song, Chunquan Liu

Abstract

This study investigated effects of different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline content in germinated maize kernels. MeJA treatment promoted carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline accumulation, while salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM) reduced carotenoids accumulation. There was a significant increase of 42.5% in lutein content when treated with 0.5 μM MeJA. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of seven carotenogenic genes was explored by MeJA and SHAM. The results showed that 0.5 μM MeJA significantly increased the gene expression levels of PSY, PDS, ZDS, LCYB, LCYE, BCH1, CYP97C, and their transcript levels, which were strongly associated with carotenoids content. Treatment of MeJA affected the carotenoids biosynthesis gene and led to the accumulation of carotenoids. These new findings would help to develop innovative approach for enrichment of lutein in germinated maize kernels for further development of functional food materials.


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Multi-residue analysis of 126 pesticides in chicken muscle by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Rui Weng, Shengting Lou, Xu Pang, Yue Song, Xin Su, Zhiyong Xiao, Jing Qiu

Abstract

Ensuring food safety requires effective methods for the simultaneous analysis of pesticide residues in animal-origin foods. A sensitive and reliable method for the multi-residue analysis of 126 pesticides in chicken muscle was developed using a modified QuEChERS technique and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A new enhanced matrix removal-lipid material was used as the QuEChERS dispersive purification adsorbent. Method validation revealed satisfactory linearities with correlation coefficients higher than 0.994 for all pesticides. All limits of quantification were below 10 μg/kg, except in the cases of oxadiazon, clomazone, and lactofen. The matrix effects were nearly negligible, ranging from 73.09% to 125.22%. The recoveries at three spiked levels (50, 100, and 200 μg/kg) were 71.38–120.43% and the intra-day and inter-day precisions were lower than 10%, indicating the good accuracy and precision of the established method.


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Melanosis and quality changes during refrigerated storage of Pacific white shrimp treated with Chamuang (<em>Garcinia cowa</em> Roxb.) leaf extract with the aid of pulsed electric field

Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Khursheed Ahmad Shiekh, Soottawat Benjakul

Abstract

Pacific white shrimp with prior pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment before soaking in Chamuang leaf extract (CLE) at different concentrations (0.5 and 1%) for 30 min were prepared. Sample pre-treated with PEF and soaked with 1% CLE (PEF-1 CLE) showed lower melanosis score than that with 1.25% sodium metabisulfite treatment, PEF treated sample or those soaked in CLE without prior PEF and the control during storage of 10 days (P < 0.05). PEF-1 CLE sample showed lower total volatile base, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances but high sensory scores than others (P < 0.05). Lower increases in mesophile, psychrophile, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and H2S producing bacterial counts were enumerated in PEF-1 CLE, compared to the control and other treated samples. The most abundant compounds from Chamuang leaf extract, including Chrysoeriol 6-C-glucoside-8-C-arabinopyranoside and veranisatin-C were found in PEF-1 CLE sample and were plausibly involved in keeping quality of shrimp.


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Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidants of skin and berry grapes of Greek <em>Vitis vinifera</em> cultivars in relation to climate conditions

Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Katerina Biniari, Melitini Xenaki, Ioannis Daskalakis, Dennis Rusjan, Despoina Bouza, Maritina Stavrakaki

Abstract

The Greek vineyard is home to many minor, indigenous grape cultivar whose diverse polyphenolic content has remained largely unexploited. The study aimed at assaying and assessing the polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of: (a) five obscure cultivars; (b) six biotypes of cultivar ‘Liatiko’; (c) five prominent cultivars; and (d) three French varieties included for comparison reasons. Results revealed all samples exhibiting high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity levels. ‘Vertzami’ recorded the highest concentrations in berry skins total anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, antioxidant capacity. ‘Mandilaria’ scored the highest value in seed total flavanols compared to all biotypes and cultivars. All ‘Liatiko’ biotypes scored the highest concentrations in seed total flavonoids and flavonols. ‘Liatiko’ and its biotypes exhibited different polyphenolic profiles between them. Owing to the climate change, those indigenous varieties' substantial polyphenol amounts, and the differences between biotypes, will allow viticulturists to select the varieties/biotypes most appropriate for obtaining higher quality products.


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The effect of clove essential oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles on the shelf life and quality of pomegranate arils

Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Nayeresadat Hasheminejad, Faramarz Khodaiyan

Abstract

The effect of four different coating dispersions including chitosan, clove essential oil, chitosan nanoparticles and clove essential oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CEO-ChNPs or encapsulated oil) was investigated on shelf life and quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils during storage at 5 °C. Among tested dispersions, CEO-ChNPs extended aril shelf life for 54 days while uncoated arils became unusable at day 18 due to the incidence of fungal decay. At the end of storage, CEO-ChNPs could significantly maintain microbial quality, weight, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, pH, total phenol and total anthocyanin content, as well as antioxidant activity and sensory quality in pomegranate arils coated with CEO-ChNPs compared to uncoated arils, however only some of mentioned parameters maintained significantly in arils coated with other dispersions (P < 0.05). According to these results, CEO-ChNPs were the most effective coating for extending shelf life and controlling undesirable microbial, physicochemical and sensory alterations of pomegranate arils.


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Physicochemical and bioactive properties of edible methylcellulose films containing <em>Rheum ribes</em> L. extract

Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Selin Kalkan, Mustafa Remzi Otağ, Mehmet Soner Engin

Abstract

Methylcellulose (MC) polymer was used to prepare the edible films. Then, the Rheum ribes L. ethanol extract (RE) was added to the films in order to act as a natural antimicrobial agent. All the methylcellulose films were characterized for bioactivity and the physicochemical analysis were carried out to define functional group interactions between the polymer and RE. The strongest antimicrobial effect was obtained with MC films enriched with 2% (w/w) RE against to Listeria monocytogenes with 20.3 ± 2.5 mm zone diameter. In the presence of RE, the tensile strength of film decreased, whereas the extract concentration significantly increased. The elongation at break and the water vapor permeability (WVP) values of the films were found to have decreased significantly in parallel with the increase in RE content. Moreover, the increase in the concentration of RE caused an increment in the hydrophilic properties, especially contact angle values of the films.


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AdditiveChem: A comprehensive bioinformatics knowledge-base for food additive chemicals

Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Dachuan Zhang, Xingxiang Cheng, Dandan Sun, Shaozhen Ding, Pengli Cai, Le Yuan, Yu Tian, Weizhong Tu, Qian-Nan Hu

Abstract

Food additives are considered to be the catalysts and headstones of the modern food industry, affecting every step of food production, processing, and storage. The urgent need for a comprehensive curation of food additives, including their molecular structures, biological activities, and precise toxicological evaluations, prompted the creation of the AdditiveChem database (http://www.rxnfinder.org/additivechem/). This database has curated >9064 types of food additives, along with their molecular structure, chemical and physical properties, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties, biosynthesis and biodegradation methods, usage specifications, toxicological and risk assessment data, and targets in the human body from 16 databases to construct an efficient search platform for in silico preliminary evaluations. AdditiveChem database will enable an exploration of the relationship between the structure and function of food additives.


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Analysis of the physiochemical properties of rice induced by postharvest yellowing during storage

Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Yue Xiao, Wenting Shang, Jinguang Liu, Hui Sun, Padraig Strappe, Zhongkai Zhou

Abstract

Pasting properties indicated that the yellowing process led to a reduced peak viscosity and breakdown value of the postharvest yellowing (PHY) rice compared to corresponding normal one. More importantly, the current study revealed that both moduli of G′ and G″ of the gel formed from the PHY rice was lower than that of its corresponding rice and the yellowing significantly reduced the area of the hysteresis curve. Thus, it is proposed that PHY may inhibit the formation of a continuous network structure. Studies of moisture absorption dynamics and low-field NMR suggested that the yellowing process led to a faster moisture absorption and de-absorption, indicating a faster moisture fluidity in rice kernels induced by yellowing process. Potent of the “capillary channels” might be formed during rice yellowing, and these structural characteristics may be associated with its higher digestibility due to the accelerated diffusion of the digestive enzymes in rice kernels.


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Effect of EDTA enriched diets on farmed fish allergenicity and muscle quality; a proteomics approach

Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Cláudia Raposo De Magalhães, Denise Schrama, Flávio Fonseca, Annette Kuehn, Martine Morisset, Sara R. Ferreira, Amparo Gonçalves, Pedro M. Rodrigues

Abstract

Fish is one of the most common elicitors of food-allergic reactions worldwide. These reactions are triggered by the calcium-binding muscle protein β-parvalbumin, which was shown to have reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity upon calcium depletion. This work aimed to reduce gilthead seabream allergenicity using diets supplemented with a calcium chelator. Three experimental feeds were tested, differing in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) supplementation, and its effects on muscle and parvalbumin's IgE-reactivity were analyzed. Chromatographic determination of EDTA showed no accumulation in the muscle and sensory results demonstrated that the lowest concentration did not affect fish quality as edible fish. Proteomics revealed one protein related to muscle contraction with significantly different relative abundance. Immunoblot assays performed with fish-allergic patients sera indicated a 50% reduction in IgE-reactivity upon EDTA presence. These preliminary results provide the basis for the further development of a non-GMO approach to modulate fish allergenicity and improve safety of aquaculture fish.


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Profiling of organosulfur compounds and amino acids in garlic from different regions of China

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Pingxiang Liu, Rui Weng, Xiaojing Sheng, Xinlu Wang, Wenhuan Zhang, Yongzhong Qian, Jing Qiu

Abstract

The quality of garlic is mainly attributed to organosulfur compounds that are the secondary metabolites of certain amino acids. Herein, a sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 7 organosulfur compounds and 21 amino acids using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Then the levels of these 28 compounds and allicin in garlic among 242 samples from 6 provinces in China were profiled with multivariate data analysis. The results showed that garlic was rich in organosulfur compounds and could be a good supplement for amino acids. Contents of 29 compounds varied greatly among the provinces. The multivariate data analysis demonstrated two major groups for all samples, indicating that the location has a significant influence on the metabolism of garlic. Besides, the compositional differences of garlic from 6 provinces and correlations for growing conditions and contents of components were also analyzed.


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The application of an aqueous two-phase system combined with ultrasonic cell disruption extraction and HPLC in the simultaneous separation and analysis of solanine and <em>Solanum nigrum</em> polysaccharide from <em>Solanum nigrum</em> unripe fruit

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Lina Zhu, Yang Lu, Zhuo Sun, Juan Han, Zhenjiang Tan

Abstract

An aqueous two-phase system was used in conjunction with ultrasonic cell disruption to extract and separate solanine (mainly solasonine and solamargine) and Solanum nigrum polysaccharide from Solanum nigrum unripe fruit. The optimized conditions of the present study were determined by a single-factor experiment and a multifactor experiment. The concentration of ethanol was set at 60% and the duration of the ultrasonic cell disruption extraction was 50 min. In the ethanol-K2CO3 aqueous two-phase separation system, the concentration of ethanol was 36%, the concentration of K2CO3 was 0.21 mg·mL−1, and the temperature was 15 °C. The solasonine and solamargine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the Solanum nigrum polysaccharide was determined by an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer in accordance with the phenol–sulfuric acid method. xUnder optimized conditions, the average extraction efficiencies of solasonine, solamargine and Solanum nigrum polysaccharide were 95.86%, 95.95% and 96.95%, respectively, and the average separation efficiencies of solasonine, solamargine and Solanum nigrum polysaccharide were 2.07 mg·g−1, 2.05 mg·g−1 and 8.15 mg·g−1, respectively.


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Proteolytic activity of <em>Lactobacillus</em> strains isolated from Mongolian traditional dairy products: A multiparametric analysis

Publication date: 30 January 2020

Source: Food Chemistry, Volume 304

Author(s): Cyril Raveschot, Benoit Cudennec, Barbara Deracinois, Marc Frémont, Maxime Vaeremans, Jamyan Dugersuren, Shirchin Demberel, Djamel Drider, Pascal Dhulster, François Coutte, Christophe Flahaut

Abstract

The aim of our study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of 170 Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products (yogurt and fermented milk), and to investigate their capacity to generate bioactive peptides during milk fermentation. All isolates were screened for proteolytic activity using skim milk agar-well diffusion test. Fifteen strains (9 Lactobacillus helveticus and 6 Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) were then selected and further evaluated using an original strategy based on multiparametric analysis, taking into account growth rate, acidification capacity, proteolytic activity, cell envelope associated peptidase (CEP) profile and LC–MS/MS analysis of peptides. All parameters were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that strain growth and acidification correlate with peptide production and that Mongolian L. helveticus strains differ from Western strains in terms of CEP distribution. The PCA revealed that CEP profiles are major determinants of β-casein hydrolysis patterns. Strains with distinctive proteolytic activities were identified.


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Toxic trace elements in dried mushrooms: Effects of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion on food safety

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Gabriela M. Chiocchetti, Teresa Latorre, María Jesús Clemente, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Vicenta Devesa, Dinoraz Vélez

Abstract

Mushrooms can accumulate toxic trace elements. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic in dried mushrooms, to determine the effect of cooking on the contents of these elements, and to evaluate their bioaccessibility in the mushrooms ready for consumption. The results showed that Hg levels in Amanita ponderosa, Boletus edulis, Marasmius oreades, and Tricholoma georgii, as well as Cd levels in some samples of Amanita caesarea and T. georgii, exceeded the legislated limits. Cooking significantly reduced the levels of As (26–72%), whereas the reduction in levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb was much lower. However, the bioaccessibility of As (63–81%) was higher than the values obtained for the metals (<40%). Taking the effects of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion into account gives a more realistic estimate of the risk associated with the consumption of mushrooms.


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Isolation of a tyrosinase inhibitor from unripe grapes juice: A spectrophotometric study

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Claudia Honisch, Alice Osto, Amanda Dupas de Matos, Simone Vincenzi, Paolo Ruzza

Abstract

Grapes are known to contain high quantity of polyphenolic compounds, including caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids esterified with tartaric acid, to yield caftaric, coutaric and fertaric acids, respectively. These acids are more abundant in unripe grapes, which can be processed into verjuice, a product that shows intrinsic resistance against microbial growth and significant antioxidant activity. In the present work, the isolation of hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids from unripe grape juice by chromatographic techniques was described. Moreover, the capability of caftaric acid to inhibit tyrosinase activity was evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. According to the kinetics parameters calculated, caftaric acid was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase, more potent than the related caffeic and chlorogenic acids, suggesting that it can be used in cosmetic and food industries for the development of natural skin whitening formulations and as an agent able to counteract the enzymatic browning of food.

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FT-RAMAN methodology for the monitoring of honeys' spirit distillation process

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Ofélia Anjos, Regina Santos, Leticia M. Estevinho, Ilda Caldeira

Abstract

Honey spirit is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation followed by distillation of the honey must, which has distinct organoleptic characteristics derived mostly from the raw material used. In order to accurately monitor the quality of the product throughout the distillation process (head, heart and tail stages), FT-RAMAN spectroscopy was applied. Dark honey, light honey and honey obtained following waxes' wash was used to produce honey spirit. The pH, alcoholic strength, methanol content, acetaldehyde content, ethyl acetate content and higher alcohols content were evaluated during the distillation process. The FT-RAMAN technique was used to obtain spectral information for all fractions collected during beverage production. The results suggest that the honey spirit had good quality concerning the volatile composition and methanol was not detected in any sample. FT-RAMAN is promising for the online monitoring of the distillation process in order to improve the final quality of this beverage.


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Cluster bagging promotes melatonin biosynthesis in the berry skins of <em>Vitis vinifera</em> cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Carignan during development and ripening

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Shui-Huan Guo, Teng-Fei Xu, Tian-Ci Shi, Xu-Qiao Jin, Ming-Xin Feng, Xian-Hua Zhao, Zhen-Wen Zhang, Jiang-Fei Meng

Abstract

Melatonin, a tryptophan derivative, is an important functional component in grape berries. We investigated the effect of cluster bagging on melatonin biosynthesis in the berries of two wine grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Carignan, during fruit development and ripening. Cluster bagging delayed fruit coloring and ripening, and bag-treated berries of both grape cultivars synthesized more melatonin and most of the precursor compounds including L-tryptophan, N-acetylserotonin, tryptamine, and serotonin compared to those exposed to light (control) conditions. Interestingly, 5-methoxytryptamine was only detected in the berries of Carignan and not of Cabernet Sauvignon, both in the cluster bagging and control groups. In addition, melatonin and most of its precursors, decreased after veraison. VvSNAT1 and VvT5H expression levels were positively correlated with melatonin content. Our findings suggested that melatonin synthesis pathways differ among grape cultivars, and that VvSNAT1 and VvT5H may show key regulatory roles in the melatonin synthesis of grape berries.


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Evaluation of astringent taste of green tea through mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of polyphenols

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Juhua Zhuang, Xinlong Dai, Mengqing Zhu, Shuxiang Zhang, Qianying Dai, Xiaolan Jiang, Yajun Liu, Liping Gao, Tao Xia

Abstract

The contributions of many polyphenols other than catechins and flavonols to the astringency of tea are often neglected. Here, the contributions of polyphenols were assessed through targeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. A total of 86 polyphenols were identified from 47 green tea samples with varying astringency scores, of which 76 compounds were relatively quantified. A correlation matrix analysis revealed that monohydroxyflavonol and acyl derivatives of polyphenols, except for galloylated catechins, had negative correlations with the other polyphenols. Principal component analysis revealed a distinct separation of monohydroxyflavonol and acyl derivatives of polyphenols from the other polyphenols. The results suggest metabolic differences in terms of hydroxylation, glycosylation, acylation, and condensation reactions of polyphenols between the different tea samples, particularly between the samples obtained in spring and autumn. The correlation analysis showed that metabolic fluxes toward the aforementioned four reactions of polyphenols played unique roles in the astringency of tea infusions.


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LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS-assisted elucidation of the phenolic compounds in shalgams: Comparison of traditional and direct methods

Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Dilem Tanriseven, Pınar Kadiroglu, Serkan Selli, Hasim Kelebek

Abstract

Shalgam is a beverage which is produced by lactic acid fermentation of black carrot juice. Two commercial methods (traditional method - TM and direct method - DM) used to produce shalgams were compared with respect to their effects on the general compositions, bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant potentials for the first time. A total of 25 phenolic compounds comprising anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids were identified and characterized by LC-DAD-ESI/MSn. Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-galactoside and cyanidin-3-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside accounted for the highest amount of the total anthocyanins. Also, seven newly-identified anthocyanins including cyanidin 3-xylosyl-(caffeoyl-glucosyl)-galactoside, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-(p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucosyl)-galactoside, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-galactoside+vinylphenol, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-galactoside+vinylcatechol, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-(feruloyl-glucosyl)-galactoside+vinylcatechol, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-galactoside+ vinylguaiacol, cyanidin 3-xylosyl-(feruloyl-glucosyl)-galactoside+vinylguaiacol were found in the shalgam samples for the first time. Phenolic acids and flavonols of shalgam samples were studied for the first time. The major subclass of the chlorogenic acids was identified as 5-caffeoylquinic acid in the samples. Antioxidant capacities of the samples screened using ABTS and DPPH assays were in accordance with their total phenolic content. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clear discrimination between the two production methods (TM and DM). This study demonstrated that the DM provided higher phenolic and antioxidant potential than the TM in the shalgam samples.


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Comparison of citrus pectin and apple pectin in conjugation with soy protein isolate (SPI) under controlled dry-heating conditions

Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Xiaobin Ma, Weijun Chen, Tianyi Yan, Danli Wang, Furong Hou, Song Miao, Donghong Liu

Abstract

In this study, we selected two most commonly-available commercial pectin, i.e. citrus pectin and apple pectin as the grafting polysaccharides to prepare soy protein isolate-pectin conjugates. Despite the similar degrees of methoxylation and acetylation for two pectin samples, apple pectin showed much more complex structures compared to citrus pectin, with a 2.20-fold higher molecular weight and large numbers of side chains. The conjugates were prepared under controlled dry-heating conditions and achieved the degree of graft of 25.00% and 21.85% for citrus and apple pectin, respectively. Formation of the conjugates was further confirmed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and IR spectra. Attributed to the strong steric-hindrance effect of pectin, the fluorescence intensity and surface hydrophobicity of the soy protein isolate were significantly decreased after Maillard reaction. However, both solubility and emulsifying properties of the conjugates were significantly improved. Results indicated that both pectin samples played favorable roles in protein modification.


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Characterization of thermo-oxidative behavior of ethylcellulose oleogels

Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Hong Fu, Y. Martin Lo, Mengtin Yan, Peixu Li, Yanping Cao

Abstract

The thermo-oxidative behavior crucial to the applicability of ethylcellulose (EC) oleogels is characterized. Not only did we take into account the composition of the gel network in relation to textural attributes, but also the dynamic chemical changes occurred during formation, heating, and holding of the gels. EC oleogel oxidative stability showed that at 6.0% EC100 concentration in the oleogels the movement of liquid oil trapped in the gel network was hindered by its high viscosity and stable gel network, thus retarding oxidation. Processing temperature ≤ 120 °C for <2 h was recommended when incorporated in food systems to minimize oxidation. As for the measurement of oxidative stability in general, p-AnV was found suitable in depicting oxidation of EC oleogels. Meanwhile, both Rao and Rad acquired from 1H NMR spectra could serve as reliable oxidative indicators to gauge total oxidation of EC oleogels during storage.


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Effect of exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment on disease resistance of postharvest kiwifruit

Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Liuyi Pan, Xianyang Zhao, Ming Chen, Yongqi Fu, Miaolian Xiang, Jinyin Chen

Abstract

Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Jinkui) were treated with 0.1 mmol/L methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to investigate the effects on disease resistance to soft rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. The results showed that MeJA treatment significantly reduced the diameter of lesions after inoculation with B. dothidea. This treatment significantly enhanced the activities of related antioxidant protective enzymes, defence-related enzymes including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chitinase (CHI), β-1,3 glucanase (GLU) and increased the accumulation of total phenolic content, while the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation was reduced. MeJA treatment effectively enhanced gene expression of AcPOD, AcSOD, AcCHI and AcGLU. The results from this research suggest that MeJA treatment is a promising and safe strategy for controlling postharvest rot soft of kiwifruit.


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Strategy for the identification of micro-organisms producing food and feed products: Bacteria producing food enzymes as study case

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Marie Deckers, Kevin Vanneste, Raf Winand, Sigrid C.J.D.E. Keersmaecker, Sarah Denayer, Marc Heyndrickx, Dieter Deforce, Marie-Alice Fraiture, Nancy H.C. Roosens

Abstract

Recent European regulations require safety assessments of food enzymes (FE) before their commercialization. FE are mainly produced by micro-organisms, whose viable strains nor associated DNA can be present in the final products. Currently, no strategy targeting such impurities exists in enforcement laboratories. Therefore, a generic strategy of first line screening was developed to detect and identify, through PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene, the potential presence of FE producing bacteria in FE preparations. First, the specificity was verified using all microbial species reported to produce FE. Second, an in-house database, with 16S reference sequences from bacteria producing FE, was constructed for their fast identification through blast analysis. Third, the sensitivity was assessed on a spiked FE preparation. Finally, the applicability was verified using commercial FE preparations. Using straightforward PCR amplifications, Sanger sequencing and blast analysis, the proposed strategy was demonstrated to be convenient for implementation in enforcement laboratories.


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Cold non-enzymatic browning of glucosamine in the presence of metmyoglobin induces glucosone and deoxymyoglobin formation

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Xue Zhao, Yuliya Hrynets, Mirko Betti

Abstract

Glucosamine (GlcN) and GlcN-myoglobin reaction systems were incubated at 4 °C to verify that GlcN can go through non-enzymatic browning at this low temperature, and to test the hypothesis that certain reductones from GlcN non-enzymatic browning can promote the formation of deoxy- and oxymyoglobin from metmyoglobin reduction. Remarkably, alpha-dicarbonyls and self-condensation products, fructosazine and deoxyfructosazine, were produced at this relatively low temperature. The presence of myoglobin shifted GlcN non-enzymatic browning toward the formation of glucosone and fructosazine. When glucosone (250–2000 mg/L) was incubated with myoglobin it contributed to the formation of deoxymyoglobin, indicating its capacity to reduce metmyoglobin. This study opens the possibility of using GlcN in meat products to increase oxy- and deoxymyoglobin and enhance the color of meat.


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Effective enrichment and detection of plant growth regulators in fruits and vegetables using a novel magnetic covalent organic framework material as the adsorbents

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Ning Li, Di Wu, Xiuting Li, Xuxia Zhou, Guangsen Fan, Guoliang Li, Yongning Wu

Abstract

The present research reported a facile strategy for the synthesis of a novel magnetic covalent organic frameworks (Fe3O4@COF(TpDA)) material and applied it as a sorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of plant growth regulators from fruits and vegetables. The prepared Fe3O4@COF materials showed many attractive features involving large specific surface area (180.2 m2/g) and high saturation magnetization (62.3 emu/g), which enabled it an ideal sorbent for sample pretreatment. The experimental conditions affecting the extraction performance were optimized systematically, including eluent, amount of sorbent, adsorption time and desorption time. The extracted samples were detected by HPLC-DAD. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method exhibited good linearity (R ≥ 0.9990) and low limits of detection (4.68–7.51 μg/L). Satisfactory recoveries were calculated to be 83.0–105.0%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determination of plant growth regulators in fruits and vegetables, indicating the potential prospect of the Fe3O4@COF(TpDA) materials in sample pretreatment.


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Comparative analysis of isoflavone aglycones using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis from soybean organs at different growth times and screening for their digestive enzyme inhibition and antioxidant properties

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Du Hyun Kim, Won Tae Yang, Kye Man Cho, Jin Hwan Lee

Abstract

The objectives of this research were to demonstrate the changes in isoflavone-aglycones, total phenolics, and biological properties (digestive enzyme inhibition; antioxidant) from six organs including leaves, leafstalks, roots, stems, seeds, and pods at different growth times of soybean plant. Three isoflavone-aglycones in microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis extracts were elucidated using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS and their contents exhibited remarkable differences in leaves (245.93–2239.33 μg/g), roots (854.96–4425.34 μg/g), and seeds (ND–2339.62 μg/g). Specifically, the collected samples on 15-Oct (leaves: 2239.33; seeds: 2339.62 μg/g) and 31-Aug (roots: 4425.34 μg/g) showed the highest isoflavone-aglycones, and daidzein was observed the most abundant component, comprising approximately 70%. Moreover, the inhibitions against α-glucosidase and α-amylase displayed the predominant effects in roots (89;91%) and leaves (81;85%) of samples on 31-Aug and 15-Oct at 300 μg/ml. The antioxidant activities on ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals increased considerably with the increases of growth times in leaves and seeds, especially, ABTS showed the highest scavenging abilities: leaves (15-Oct;83%) > roots (31-Aug;75%) > seeds (15-Oct;68%). Therefore, our results suggest that soybean leaves, roots and seeds may be considered as excellent natural sources for nutraceuticals.


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Fibres of milling and fruit processing by-products in gluten-free bread making: A review of hydration properties, dough formation and quality-improving strategies

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Maike Föste, Christoph Verheyen, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker

Abstract

Gluten-free (GF) breads often lack proteins, minerals and fibres and have an imbalanced energy value, as they are primarily based on flour or starch. To nutritionally fortify GF bread, dietary fibres from milling and fruit processing by-products can be utilized. However, fibre addition changes sensorial, nutritional and also technological properties, such as dough or batter hydration. This review evaluates and compares different methods for quantifying the hydration properties of GF fibres and the resulting batters. Revelations are that the hydration properties of fibres vary greatly, depending on the utilized measuring technique, thus impeding the calculation of the appropriate water amount for GF batter processing. In addition, bran and fibres increase the loss factor tan δ and delay thermal transformation, compromising the specific loaf volume. Finally, operational strategies, such as enzymatic or extrusion treatments are discussed regarding their efficiency to increase water absorption in order to further improve GF bread quality.


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Effect of different pretreatments followed by hot-air and far-infrared drying on the bioactive compounds, physicochemical property and microstructure of mango slices

Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Longyang Yao, Liuping Fan, Zhenhua Duan

Abstract

In recent years there is an increasing interest in dried fruits, although many of their nutritional components are readily lost during drying. The novelty of this paper was to assess the effect of hot-air drying (HAD) and far-infrared drying (FIRD) on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of mango slices pretreated with: control; 0.1% citric acid + 0.5% ascorbic acid + 0.5% CaCl2 + 1% NaCl; or 0.1% citric acid + 0.5% ascorbic acid + 0.5% CaCl2 + 1% NaCl + ultrasound treatments. Pretreatments resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in reducing sugar, ascorbic acid and total phenol contents of dried samples. Moreover, compared with HAD, FIRD maintained a higher phenolic acid content, improved the nutrient retention and color attributes and better preserved microstructure. Therefore, pretreatments followed by FIRD is a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mango slices.


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Thermal disruption of the food matrix of biofortified lettuce varieties modifies absorption of carotenoids by Caco-2 cells

Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Cleiton Lourenço de Oliveira, Galina Brychkova, Alberto Abrantes Esteves-Ferreira, Peter McKeown, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Wilson Roberto Maluf, Luiz Antonio Augusto Gomes, Charles Spillane

Abstract

Amongst green leafy vegetables, new varieties of lettuce enriched in lutein and β-carotene are being developed to provide increased supply of dietary carotenoids. We investigated the effect of lettuce genotypes (varieties) and thermal treatments on lutein and β-carotene bioaccessibility to the micellar fraction (and also carotenoid bioavailability) using a human Caco-2 cell model system. Carotenoid absorption by mammalian cells is not correlated with initial carotenoid concentration in fresh lettuce leaves. While thermal treatment of lettuce leaves increases carotenoid availability, resulting in higher lutein and β-carotene absorption, disruption of the food matrix by prior cooking results in reduced carotenoid levels and transfer to the micellar fraction. Unless the food matrix is disrupted through breeding or post-harvest treatments, absorption of carotenoids from biofortified lettuce remains similar to lettuce cultivars with low carotenoid levels. Genetic improvement programs for biofortified lettuce varieties need to focus on increasing the carotenoid bioavailability from the food matrix.


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Enhancement of the Stability of Chlorophyll using Chlorophyll-encapsulated Polycaprolactone Microparticles based on Droplet Microfluidics

Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Ching-Ju Hsiao, Jui-Fen Lin, Hsin-Yi Wen, Yu-Mei Lin, Chih-Hui Yang, Keng-Shiang Huang, Jei-Fu Shaw

Abstract

Chlorophyll is a valuable bioactive compound, which is used as a natural food coloring agent and a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy because of its antioxidant properties, antimutagenic ability, and near-infrared fluorescence. However, chlorophyll is unstable when it comes to retaining its antioxidant activity, when exposed to oxygen, high temperature, or light environments. To enhance the stability of chlorophyll, a polymer encapsulation method was proposed. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was employed to encapsulate the chlorophyll, and the particles size of the composites was controlled through droplet microfluidics. The composites (chlorophyll-encapsulated PCL particles) were characterized through UV–VIS spectrometry, SEM, optical microscopy, and light exposure. The particles were spherical, with diameters adjustable from 68 to 247 μm. Additionally, the chlorophyll-encapsulated PCL particles exhibited considerably prolonged chlorophyll stability. The solid microparticle is more convenient for storage and transportation, and have great potential for application in the food industry.


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Development of a whole liquid egg certified reference material for accurate measurement of enrofloxacin residue

Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Mengrui Yang, Fang Liu, Min Wang, Jian Zhou, Liyuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang

Abstract

To ensure accurate and reliable measurement results, a whole liquid egg certified reference material (CRM) retaining the resemblance to real samples was first developed for improving measurement quality of enrofloxacin residue in eggs. The CRM raw material naturally containing enrofloxacin was obtained by sampling eggs from laying hens following oral administration of enrofloxacin. The homogenizing and bottling procedure was evaluated and applied on the bulk raw material to prepare the CRM candidate. For characterization of the CRM, liquid chromatography tandem isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a reliable reference method was studied and used for value assignment by all participating laboratories. The certified value was assigned to be 30.6 μg/kg with expanded uncertainty of 3.1 μg/kg (coverage factor k=2, approximate 95% confidence interval) for enrofloxacin. In addition, homogeneity, long-term stability at -70°C for one year and short-term stability at -18°C, 4°C and room temperature for at nine days were assessed.


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Relationship between structure and physicochemical properties of ginkgo starches from seven cultivars

Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Yan Lu, Xiaomin Zhang, Yong Yang, Yan Qi, Weizhuo Hao, Li Wang, Qiaoquan Liu, Yuping Ling, Changquan Zhang

Abstract

The structures and physicochemical properties of ginkgo starches from seven cultivars were investigated and their relationships analyzed. The ginkgo starches had oval or irregular shapes, size distributions with a unimodal peak, and an A-type crystal pattern. The fine structures, crystalline structures, and physicochemical properties varied significantly among these ginkgo starches. Pearson correlation analysis and a PCA loading plot indicated that amylopectin A-chains and amylose had negative effects on the IR ratio, Imax, and D, while amylopectin B-chains had a clear positive effect on the relative crystallinity. Furthermore, the amylopectin short B1-chains and long B-chains contributed amorphous and single-helix structures, respectively. The thermal properties of the ginkgo starches were mainly influenced by the amylopectin B-chains and Imax, while the pasting properties were mainly influenced by amylopectin B-chains and helical structures. These results indicated that the starch fine structures and crystalline structures had significant effects on the physicochemical properties.


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A comparative evaluation of nutritional properties, antioxidant capacity and physical characteristics of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitate Var L.) subjected to different drying methods

Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Yayuan Xu, Yadong Xiao, Camel Lagnika, Dajing Li, Chunquan Liu, Ning Jiang, Jiangfeng Song, Min Zhang

Abstract

Cabbag has been considered as one of attractive raw materials for dehydrated vegetables owing to high nutrient value. However, information about how drying methods affect the physicochemical properties of cabbage is limited. In present study, segmented cabbages were subjected to freeze drying (FD), hot air drying (HAD), microwave vacuum drying (MVD), vacuum drying (VD), MVD combined with HAD (MVD+HAD) and VD (MVD+VD). Dehydrated cabbages were compared in terms of nutritional components, antioxidant activity, microstructure, texture and so on. Results demonstrated that HAD conducted a worse effect, with loss rate of nutritional components more than 45%. However, two combined methods performed higher retention for nutritional compositions, better antioxidant activity and lower energy consumption than individual HAD. Furthermore, MVD+HAD products exhibited higher rehydration capacity and more uniform honeycomb porous structure but lower hardness compared to HAD. This conclusion would be fundamental for choosing more appropriate drying methods to obtain desirable quality.


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Corrigendum to “Determination and study on refractive indices and viscosities of aqueous solutions of citric acid, (citric acid + glycerol), and (citric acid + <span class="small-caps">d</span>-sorbitol) at T = 293.15 K–323.15 K and atmospheric pressure” [Food Chemistry, 289 (2019) 436–442]

Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Mina Miranzadeh Omran, Farhoush Kiani, Azade Ghorbani-Hasan Saraei, Fardad Koohyar, Ali Mohammadzadeh Rostami


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Enhancing the Hardness of Potato Slices after Boiling by Combined Treatment with Lactic Acid and Calcium Chloride: Mechanism and Optimization

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Jia Liu, Chengrong Wen, Mei Wang, Sijie Wang, Nan Dong, Zunguo Lei, Songyi Lin, Beiwei Zhu

Abstract

Potatoes usually suffer from greatly decrease of hardness after boiling, which limits their processing potential in food industry. Moreover, methods for enhancing the hardness of potatoes after boiling are underexplored. In this study, the hardness of potato slices after boiling were increased from 288 g to 2342 g by the combined treatment of lactic acid (LA) and calcium chloride (CC). Through the analysis of the microstructure of the potato cells, the molecular weight distribution and natural sugar ratio of different soluble pectin fractions, and the enzymatic activities (polygalacturonase, PG and pectin methylesterase, PME), the possible mechanism behind the hardness enhancement by LA and CC pretreatment, namely the direct link between pectin and potato structure was revealed. The obtained results confirmed the target spot for enhancing the hardness of potatoes after boiling lay in PG activity and gelation of the pectin, which also could be used to help other plants resist the heat process if pectin existed in their cell wall.

Graphical abstract

Graphical abstract for this article


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Purification and Characterization of a bifunctional fructan: fructan 6G-fructosyl transferase from garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em>)

Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019

Source: Food Chemistry

Author(s): Xue Qiang Wu, Jia Xin Yu, Heng Xu, Xue Song Huang

Abstract

A fructosyl transferase from garlic, fructan: fructan 6G-fructosyl transferase (6G-FFT), was purified and further characterized. 6G-FFT is a dimer glycoprotein around 120 kDa. Optimal activity was found at pH 6.0 and 25°C, and the enzyme was liable to heat instability and was inhibited by Ag+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. 6G-FFT is a bifunctional enzyme which has transferase and hydrolase activities. Transferase activity did not fit well the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and its Hill coefficient (2.1±0.3) shows positive cooperativity of multiple binding sites for its substrate in the enzyme. Hydrolase activity shows similar Vmax and Km with transferase activity, which suggested that the substrate concentration must be high enough to offset the expense of hydrolysis and start the fructosyl-transferring activity. This bifunctional enzyme only recognized fructooligosaccharides with over two monosaccharide units as their substrates. These findings will provide a theoretical foundation to regulate the metabolism of fructans to prolong the storage of garlic.


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Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.






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