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Ecotoxicology

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..




Ecotoxicology is an international scientific journal devoted to the publication of fundamental research on the effects of toxic chemicals on populations, communities and terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (environmental chemistry):

 - Atmospheric Chemistry.

 - Chemosphere.

 - Environmental Chemistry.

 - Environmental Chemistry Letters.

 - Environmental Monitoring.

 - Environmental Science and Technology.

 - Environmental Toxicology.



Ecotoxicology - Abstracts



Photo-induced toxicity in early life stage fiddler crab ( Uca longisignalis ) following exposure to Deepwater Horizon oil

Abstract

The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either <10, 50, or 100% ambient sunlight, achieved with filters that allowed for variable UV penetration. Solar exposures (duration: 7-h per day) were conducted for two consecutive days, with a dark recovery period (duration: 17-h) in between. Survival was significantly decreased in treatments the presence of >10% UV and relatively low concentrations of oil. Results of the present study indicate fiddler crab larvae are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity in the presence of DWH oil. These results are of concern, as fiddler crabs play an important role as ecosystem engineers, modulating sediment biogeochemical processes via burrowing action. Furthermore, they occupy an important place in the food web in the Gulf of Mexico.


Datum: 01.05.2018


The effects of fluoxetine on attachment and righting behaviours in marine ( Gibbula unbilicalis ) and freshwater ( Lymnea stagnalis ) gastropods

Abstract

Recent studies have highlighted that antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) entering aquatic systems through wastewater discharges might impact organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this study, two snail species (Gibbula unbilicalis and Lymnea stagnalis) representing the marine and freshwater environments were exposed to a large range of fluoxetine concentrations (1 ng L−1—1 mg L−1) and two distinct behaviours (foot detachment and righting time) were recorded. Fluoxetine significantly caused foot detachment only at the higher of the concentrations (1 mg L−1) in both species during the course of this short term 1.5 h and 4 h exposures. In this study, lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for foot detachment fell repeatedly within the range for other gastropod snails exposed to fluoxetine. Fluoxetine effected righting times in a concentration dependant manner but only significantly within G. unbilicalis in the highest concentration. Reviewing existing data on the effects of antidepressants on a range of endpoints in gastropod molluscs reveals wide variability of results. The importance of publishing ‘negative’ and/or non-dramatic results to aid risk assessment are discussed along with the variability between antidepressants, model species, experimental designs and endpoints.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Boric acid as reference substance for ecotoxicity tests in tropical artificial soil

Abstract

Reference substances are recommended to evaluate the quality of laboratory test species and the reliability of ecotoxicity data. Boric acid (BA) has been recommended as reference substance in some standardized tests in OECD soil, but no data are available for Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS). For this purpose, avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei, lethality tests with E. andrei and Folsomia candida, and reproduction tests with E. andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and F. candida were carried out in TAS (5% organic matter), following ISO guidelines, and compared between two laboratories. Collembolans were more sensitive than earthworms in lethality tests (LC50 = 342 and > 1000 mg kg−1, respectively). For both laboratories, the EC50 values were similar for reproduction of oligochaeta species (165 mg kg−1 for E. crypticus; 242 and 281 mg kg−1 for E. andrei), but significantly different for reproduction of F. candida (96 and 198 mg kg−1). Present results suggest that boric acid could replace the current pesticides recommended by ISO guidelines as reference substances on reproduction tests with soil invertebrates in TAS. Concerning avoidance tests, additional investigations should be performed with other substances that cause no neurotoxic effects on soil organisms.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Sublethal effects of insecticides used in soybean on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum

Abstract

To control crop pests, parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma are one alternative to the use of insecticides. Since a wide variety of agrochemicals may be applied to the same crops, it is essential to assess the selectivity of insecticides used for pest control on Trichogramma pretiosum. Information on which insecticides are less harmful to T. pretiosum can improve biological control using this insect, an important tactic in IPM programs for field crops. This study aimed to determine the effects of insecticides on the pupal stage and on the parasitism capacity of T. pretiosum. Lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly harmful and chlorpyriphos was moderately harmful to the pupal stage, while acephate, chlorfenapyr and flubendiamide, although considered innocuous, affected the succeeding generations of wasps, with low emergence of F1. Chlorfenapyr, chlorpyriphos and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam reduced the parasitism, and acephate had a deleterious effect on the generation that contacted the insecticide residue. For an effective IPM program, it is important to apply selective insecticides. Further studies are needed to determine the selectivity of these insecticides under field conditions.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) used to assess a Beneficial Use Impairment in U.S. and Binational Great Lakes’ Areas of Concern

Abstract

During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates. Four of 5 ecological variables (Female Age, Date within season, Year, and Site) were important explanatory variables. Of the 11 contaminants, only total dioxin and furan toxic equivalents (TEQs) explained a significant amount of the egg failure probabilities. Neither total PCBs nor PCB TEQs explained the variation in egg failure rates. In a separate analysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in nestling diet, used as a proxy for female diet during egg laying, was significantly correlated with the daily probability of egg failure. The 8 sites within AOCs which had poorer reproduction when compared to 10 non-AOC sites, the measure of impaired reproduction as defined by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, were associated with exposure to dioxins and furan TEQs, PAHs, or depredation. Only 2 sites had poorer reproduction than the poorest performing non-AOC. Using a classic (non-modeling) approach to estimating reproductive success, 82% of nests hatched at least 1 egg, and 75% of eggs laid, excluding those collected for contaminant analyses, hatched.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Protein profiling as early detection biomarkers for TiO 2 nanoparticle toxicity in Daphnia magna

Abstract

The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO2-NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch. The protein profile of individuals exposed to different concentrations showed that 2.8 and 5.6 mg/L TiO2-NP concentrations induced an over-expression of the majority of proteins, in particular proteins with molecular weight of ∼120, 85 and 15 kDa, while 11.2 mg/L TiO2-NP had an inhibitory effect on protein expression. The Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of these proteins consistently identified them as vitellogenin (Vtg)-like proteins, associated with enzymes involved in redox balance. These results indicate that Vtg-like proteins are up-regulated in D. magna exposed to TiO2-NPs. Vitellogenesis is associated with the reproduction system, suggesting that TiO2-NP exposure can impair reproduction by affecting this process. The precise mode of action of TiO2-NPs is still unclear and the results from this study are a first attempt to identify specific proteins as potential markers of TiO2-NP toxicity in D. magna, providing useful information for future research.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Changes in metallothionein transcription levels in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CdTe quantum dots

Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) are a class of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with several biomedical, industrial and commercial applications. However, their metabolism and detoxification process in aquatic invertebrates and environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigate the transcriptional changes of metallothioneins (MTs) isoforms (mt10IIIa and mt20IV) induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and to the same Cd concentration (10 µg Cd L−1) of dissolved Cd for 14 days and mt transcription levels were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Tissue specific mt transcription patterns were observed in mussels exposed to both Cd forms, wherein the gills were a more sensitive organ compared to the digestive gland. No significant changes were observed in mt10IIIa transcription levels in mussels exposed to both Cd forms. In contrast, transcription of mt20IV was tissue and exposure time dependent, with higher mt20IV mRNA levels in mussels exposed to QDs and dissolved Cd when compared to unexposed mussels. Multivariate analysis indicates particle-specific effects after 14 days of exposure and a dual role of MTs in the QD metabolism and in the protection against oxidative stress in mussels exposed to Cd-based ENPs.


Datum: 01.05.2018


The toxicity of a mixture of two antiseptics, triclosan and triclocarban, on reproduction and growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Abstract

Many widely used healthcare products contain antiseptics, whose persistence in aquatic environments, soils, and sediments leads to the contamination of ecosystems and adversely affects wildlife. Recently, the impact not only of high but also low doses of contaminants and mixtures of several chemicals has become a focus of concern. In this study, toxicity tests of the antiseptics triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) were performed in an aquatic test medium using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nominal concentrations of TCS and TCC were tested in separate single-substance toxicity tests (96-h-exposure), focussing on growth and reproduction endpoints. Median effective concentrations (EC50s) from the single-substance tests were subsequently used to set up five different ratios of TCS:TCC mixtures leading to the same toxicity. Six dilutions of each mixture ratio were tested for effon reproduction of C. elegans. In the single-substance tests, TCC was about 30 times more toxic than TCS when considering effects on growth and concerning reproduction, TCC was about 50 times more toxic than TCS. For both substances, the toxic effect on reproduction was more pronounced than the one on growth. Low doses of TCS (1–10 µmol L−1) stimulated reproduction by up to 301% compared to the control, which might be due to endocrine disruption or other stress-related compensation responses (hormesis). Neither antiseptic stimulated growth. In the mixtures, increasing amounts of TCC inhibited the stimulatory effects of TCS on reproduction. In addition, the interactions of TCS and TCC were antagonistic, such that mixtures displayed lower toxicity than would have been expected when TCS and TCC mixtures adhered to the principle of concentration addition.


Datum: 01.05.2018


The psychoactive drug Escitalopram affects swimming behaviour and increases boldness in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )

Abstract

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are pharmaceuticals used to treat a range of psychological disorders. They are frequently found in surface waters in populated areas. In recent years, they have been shown to affect the behaviour of various aquatic organisms in a way that can have ecological effects. In this study, we exposed zebrafish of both sexes to nominally 0.00, 0.15 and 1.50 µg L−1 Escitalopram in flow-through tanks for three weeks. Subsequently, ten swimming behaviour parameters were quantified using high-resolution video tracking. There were noticeable gender differences in the behaviour responses to Escitalopram. Female fish exposed to 1.50 µg L−1 Escitalopram had a lower maximum swimming velocity, stopped less often and exhibited increased boldness (reduced thigmotaxis) compared to controls. Male fish exposed to 1.50 µg L−1 had a lower maximum swimming velocity compared to control fish. At the end of exposures, both length and weight of the females exposed to 1.50 µg L−1 Escitalopram were significantly less than the group of control fish. In addition, males exposed to 1.50 µg L−1 Escitalopram were significantly shorter than control fish. The behaviour, weight and body length of the fish exposed to nominally 0.15 µg L−1 was not significantly different from control fish in either sex. The results of this study demonstrate that Escitalopram can affect subtle but ecologically important aspects of fish behaviour and lends further credibility to the assumption that Escitalopram is an environmentally active pharmaceutical.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Selective toxicity of the mesoionic insecticide, triflumezopyrim, to rice planthoppers and beneficial arthropods

Abstract

The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.


Datum: 01.05.2018


Colorimetric method for determining viability of sea urchin sperm applied in toxicity tests

Abstract

The aim of this study was to improve the methodological procedure for the evaluation of sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) sperm sensitivity in MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) enzyme reduction assays with the formation of formazan (purple color) in the interior of viable cells. Assays were carried out with the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), copper, zinc, cadmium and ammonium, using a sperm solution previously activated in sea water and a sperm solution prepared in sea water containing 400 μg L−1 verapamil, which enabled activation of the sperm to occur only when exposed to the toxicants. The assays performed with sperm in verapamil presented similar sensitivity to that shown in the fertilization tests with copper, zinc and SDS, while the assays carried out with the pre-activated sperm solution presented greater resistance to the action of the toxicants. It appears that the action of verapamil involves an intracellular effect on the distribution of Ca2+ ions and that the toxicants used prevent the metabolic reactivation of the sperm.


Datum: 24.04.2018


Sensitivities of three tropical indigenous freshwater invertebrates to single and mixture exposures of diuron and carbofuran and their commercial formulations

Abstract

As compared to their temperate counterparts, few toxicity tests have been conducted so far into the evaluation of the sensitivity of indigenous tropical species to pesticides. Especially mixture toxicity assessments appear to be scarce. To contribute to increase our knowledge in this arena, we evaluated the acute toxicity of diuron and carbofuran and their mixtures to the neotropical oligochaetes Allonais inaequalis and Dero furcatus, and the ostracod Strandesia trispinosa. Tests were performed with both the pure active ingredients, as well as their formulated products. The toxicity of the latter to the three test organisms was generally greater than that of the pure active ingredients, although absolute differences were rather small. The sensitivity of the indigenous species was slightly greater than temperate test species from the same taxonomic groups. The concentration addition conceptual model best described the results of the mixture toxicity data. Derived deviations of this model appeared to be dependent on the test organism and as to whether the pesticides were applied as active ingredients or their commercial products. Reported field concentrations of the two pesticides indicate risks to freshwater biota, especially if they are both present. The test species used in the present study are concluded to be suitable candidates as surrogate test organisms in local pesticide risk evaluations.


Datum: 20.04.2018


The behaviour of the nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) in sand contaminated with the industrial pollutant chromium VI

Abstract

This study set out to determine the suitability of the nematode Steinernema feltiae as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution, specifically chromium VI. Nematodes were introduced into sand contaminated with concentrations of Cr VI+, in a range between 10 and 100 ppm, in increments of 10. Reproductive potential, development times and infectivity vs exposure times to Cr VI were employed as endpoints. It was observed that infective juveniles (IJ) from this nematode can survive and successfully infect host insects in the presence of Cr VI for as much as 13 days, and that the nematode increases its reproductive potential at concentrations up to 100 ppm Cr VI+. Conversely, development times (time in days taken for progeny to emerge after larval host death) and IJ infectivity rates were observed to reduce with increasing concentrations of Cr VI. The ability of this nematode to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr VI, and its ability to increase progeny numbers at the early stages of Cr VI exposure may provide a survival advantage for this nematode at contaminated sites. It may also demonstrate potential for development as a model species for toxicological assessment in in-situ field sampling.


Datum: 16.04.2018


Toxicity of flavor enhancers to the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of flavor enhancers to the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The flavor enhancers glycine, disodium guanylate, succinic acid disodium salt, monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate, and l-alanine significantly increased the mortality of B. dorsalis flies. The mortality of flies that fed on glycine, disodium guanylate, succinic acid disodium salt, and MSG was greater than 90%. Additionally, fruit fly mortality increased with increases in both time and concentration. Glycine not only reduced the climbing ability of B. dorsalis but also affected the duration and frequency of its behavioral patterns (flight, walking, grooming and inactivity). Compared with adult flies in the control group, adult B. dorsalis flies that fed on glycine exhibited a significantly increased duration and frequency of inactivity and a decreased duration and frequency of both flight and walking. However, the effect of glycine on grooming activity was not significant. These findings demonstrate the toxic effects of flavor enhancers on B. dorsalis. Glycine also affected the behavior of adult flies at a low dose. Therefore, glycine has potentially toxic to insects and also likely to have a negative impact at sublethal concentrations.


Datum: 11.04.2018


Bioaccumulation of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants in Tubifex tubifex and Lampsilis siliquoidea

Abstract

Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are additives in a variety of commercial polymers (e.g., lubricants, plastics, etc.). Based on their physicochemical properties, if SPAs were to enter an aquatic system, they would likely partition into sediment and have the capacity to bioaccumulate in biota. This study investigated the potential of four sediment-associated SPAs, diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-naphthalene (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), and 4,4’-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA) to accumulate in the tissues of freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and oligochaete worms (Tubifex tubifex). Mussels and worms were exposed to sediment spiked with individual SPAs for 28 d. The concentration of SPAs was measured in the gill, gonad, and remaining viscera of the mussels and entire body of the worms. The majority of biota-sediment accumulation factors (28-d BSAFs) for the different tissues of mussels were < 1. The highest concentrations of SPAs were consistently observed in the gill tissue of mussels relative to the gonad and viscera. The 28-d BSAFs for DPPDA and MBA for worms were < 1, and for DPA and PNA, they ranged from 0.38–2.13 and 1.54–33.24, respectively. The higher 28-d BSAFs observed for worms compared to mussels were likely because worms are endobenthic and feed on sediment-associated organic matter. PNA and DPPDA have similar octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) but greater 28-d BSAFs were observed for PNA compared to DPPDA for both species. This observation provides evidence that biota may be able to metabolize and/or excrete SPAs with similar physicochemical properties at considerably different rates. The 28-d BSAFs observed for sediment-associated SPAs are lower than those typically required for a chemical to be classified as bioaccumulative.


Datum: 11.04.2018


Patterns and trends in lead (Pb) concentrations in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings from the western Great Lakes region

Abstract

Most studies examining bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) exposure to lead (Pb) have focused on adults that ingested spent Pb ammunition during the fall hunting season, often at clinical or lethal levels. We sampled live bald eagle nestlings along waterbodies to quantify Pb concentrations in 3 national park units and 2 nearby study areas in the western Great Lakes region. We collected 367 bald eagle nestling feather samples over 8 years during spring 2006-2015 and 188 whole blood samples over 4 years during spring 2010-2015. We used Tobit regression models to quantify relationships between Pb concentrations in nestling feathers and blood using study area, year, and nestling attributes as covariates. Pb in nestling feather samples decreased from 2006 to 2015, but there was no trend for Pb in blood samples. Pb concentrations in nestling feather and blood samples were significantly higher in study areas located closer to and within urban areas. Pb in feather and blood samples from the same nestling was positively correlated. Pb in feathers increased with nestling age, but this relationship was not observed for blood. Our results reflect how Pb accumulates in tissues as nestlings grow, with Pb in feathers and blood indexing exposure during feather development and before sampling, respectively. Some nestlings had Pb concentrations in blood that suggested a greater risk to sublethal effects from Pb exposure. Our data provides baselines for Pb concentrations in feathers and blood of nestling bald eagles from a variety of waterbody types spanning remote, lightly populated, and human-dominated landscapes.


Datum: 10.04.2018


Marine environmental risk assessment and acute water quality criterion for pentachlorophenol in coastal waters

Abstract

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a organochlorine biocide that, unlike most other organochlorines, is still in use as timber preservative. Its water solubility, high toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and the concentrations reported in estuarine waters (up to 0.1 µg L−1) indicate it may pose a risk in coastal environments. Aquatic environrmental regulations are commonly based on standard freshwater organisms that may not represent the sensitivity of marine species. The present study consists of a water quality criteira reevalutation of PCP in coastal waters based on toxicity tests conducted recording sensitive endpoints of marine species representative of coastal ecosystems, following QA/QC standard procedures. The toxicity thresholds (EC10) found were 4.69 µg L−1 for Paracentrotus lividus sea-urchin embryos, 6.47 µg L−1 for Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel larvae, and 78.4 µg L−1 for Isochrysis galbana cells. Therefore, there is only one order of magnitude between the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for early life stages of bivalves and echinoderms and the maximum concentrations actually recorded in coastal water, which yields a remarkable risk quotient for PCP in these highly productive marine habitats. In addition, we have reviewed the ecotoxicological data on PCP toxicity on marine species representative of the main systematic groups, from algae to chordates, and derived a probabilistic acute saltwater quality criterion of 2.66 µg L−1, intended to protect 95% of the marine species. Lack of adequate protection for marine ecosystems in some current PCP national guidelines has been identified.


Datum: 07.04.2018


Effects of halogenated contaminants on reproductive development in wild mink ( Neovison vison ) from locations in Canada

Abstract

The concept of the Anthropocene, that humans are now re-engineering global ecosystems, is in part evidenced by the pervasive pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Certain POPs are hormone mimics and can disrupt endocrine and hence reproductive processes, shown mainly by laboratory studies with model species. There are, in contrast, fewer confirmations of such disruption from eco-epidemiological studies of wild mammals. Here we used the American mink (Neovison vison) as a sentinel species for such a study. Over the period 1998–2006, 161 mink carcasses were obtained from commercial trappers in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Ontario. Mink were aged, sexed, measured, and body condition assessed. Livers were analyzed either individually or pooled for organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subsets for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). We primarily addressed whether contaminants affected male reproductive development by measuring baculum size and assessing the influences of age and body condition. We also considered the influence of spatial variation on relative exposure and size of baculum. Statistical models separated by age class revealed that significant relationships between baculum length or mass and juvenile mink were mostly positive, whereas for adults and first year mink they were mostly negative. A significant negative relationship for adult mink was determined between DDE and both baculum length and mass. For juvenile mink we found significant positive relationships between ∑PCBs, DDE and ∑PBDEs with baculum length. Our results provide some indication of negative effects of halogenated contaminants on male reproductive development in wild mink, and the most likely candidate chemical is the confirmed anti-androgenic compound, DDE, rather than PCBs or other compounds.


Datum: 06.04.2018


Use of 5-azacytidine in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the impact of pre-natal and post-natal exposures, as well as within generation persistent DNA methylation changes in Daphnia

Abstract

Short-term exposures at critical stages of development can lead to delayed adverse effects long after the initial stressor has been removed, a concept referred to as developmental origin of adult disease. This indicates that organisms’ phenotypes may epigenetically reflect their past exposure history as well as reflecting chemicals currently present in their environment. This concept has significant implications for environmental monitoring. However, there is as yet little or no implementation of epigenetics in environmental risk assessment. In a proof-of-principle study we exposed Daphnia magna to 5-azacytidine, a known DNA de-methylating agent. Exposures covered combinations of prenatal and postnatal exposures as well as different exposure durations and recovery stages. Growth, the transcription of genes and levels of metabolites involved in regulating DNA methylation, and methylation levels of several genes were measured. Our data shows that prenatal exposures caused significant changes in the methylome of target genes, indicating that prenatal stages of Daphnia are also susceptible to same level of change as post-natal stages of Daphnia. While the combination of pre- and postnatal exposures caused the most extreme reduction in DNA methylation compared to the control group. Furthermore, some of the changes in the methylation patterns were persistent even after the initial stressor was removed. Our results suggest that epigenetic biomarkers have the potential to be used as indicators of past chemical exposure history of organisms and provide strong support for implementing changes to the current regimes for chemical risk assessment to mimic realistic environmental scenarios.


Datum: 05.04.2018


Assessing the toxicity of thiamethoxam, in natural LUFA 2.2 soil, through three generations of Folsomia candida

Abstract

In the field, long-term exposure is a rule rather than an exception. As a consequence, the relatively short-term standard toxicity tests may not be adequate for assessing long-term effects of pesticide exposure. This study determined the toxicity of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, both pure and in the formulation Actara® (25% active substance), to the springtail Folsomia candida, over three generations (P, F1 and F2). For the parental generation (P), the toxicity of pure thiamethoxam and Actara® did not differ significantly, with LC50s and EC50s of 0.32–0.35 and 0.23–0.25 mg a.s./kg dry soil, respectively. For the F1 and F2 generations, LC50s were >0.37 mg a.s./kg dry soil for both compounds. Actara was more toxic towards reproduction in the F1 generation (EC50 0.16 mg a.s./kg dry soil) than pure thiamethoxam (EC50 0.23 mg a.s./kg dry soil). For generation F2, there was no significant difference in the toxicity of the compounds towards reproduction, with EC50s of >0.37 and 0.30 mg a.s./kg dry soil for Actara® and pure thiamethoxam respectively. These results suggest a slight decrease in the toxicity of the compounds throughout the generations tested. The similarity in the toxicity of pure and formulated thiamethoxam indicates that the ingredients in the formulation Actara® do not enhance toxicity.


Datum: 03.04.2018


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.






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