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Ecotoxicology

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..




Ecotoxicology is an international scientific journal devoted to the publication of fundamental research on the effects of toxic chemicals on populations, communities and terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (environmental chemistry):

 - Atmospheric Chemistry.

 - Chemosphere.

 - Environmental Chemistry.

 - Environmental Chemistry Letters.

 - Environmental Monitoring.

 - Environmental Science and Technology.

 - Environmental Toxicology.



Ecotoxicology - Abstracts



Is phosphorus a limiting factor to regulate the growth of phytoplankton in Daya Bay, northern South China Sea: a mesocosm experiment

Abstract

Previous field investigations implied a potential phosphorus (P)-limitation on the growth of phytoplankton in Daya Bay, a mesotrophic bay in the northern South China Sea. Using a total of 15 mesocosms (3 × 3 × 1.5 m, with ~10.8 m3 natural seawater containing phytoplankton assemblages for each), we found P-enrichment caused no obvious effect on phytoplankton (Chl a) growth across 8-day’s cultivation in neither winter nor summer, while nitrogen (N)-enrichment greatly increased Chl a in both seasons. N plus P-enrichment further increased Chl a content. The N- or N plus P-enrichments increased the allocation of nano-Chl a but decreased micro-Chl a in most cases, with no obvious effect by P-alone. Coincided with nutrients effect on Chl a content, N- or N plus P-enrichments significantly enhanced the maximum photochemical quantum yield of Photosystem II (FV/FM) and maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax), but declined the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), as well as the threshold for light saturation of electron transport (EK); again, P-enrichment had no significant effect. Moreover, the absorption cross section for PSII photochemistry (σPSII) and electron transport efficiency (α) increased due to N- or N plus P-enrichments, indicating the increased nutrients enhance the light utilization efficiency through promoting PSII light harvesting ability, and thus to enhance phytoplankton growth. Our findings indicate that N- or N plus P-enrichments rigorously fuel phytoplankton blooms regardless of N:P ratios, making a note of caution on the expected P-deficiency or P-limitation on the basis of Redfield N:P ratios in Daya Bay.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Transcriptomic responses of the clam Meretrix meretrix to the organophosphorus pesticide (dimethoate)

Abstract

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) play a certain role in promoting the development of agriculture and forestry, but they may cause potential harm to aquatic life when entering rivers and polluting water sources. Previous researches have shown that OPs participate in the regulation mechanism of aquatic organisms. Here, our aim is to determine the underlying mechanisms of one OP (dimethoate) at the transcriptional level using the clam Meretrix meretrix. 4119 DEGs were obtained from high-throughput RNA sequencing data. Then, expression profiles of some genes were verified by qPCR, which showed a positive correlation with the RNA sequencing results. 14,481 simple sequence repeats were also identified and could be further used as molecular markers. In addition, some oxidative, immune, and stress-related genes were further discussed and could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the biological response of dimethoate. This study will help to better understand the clam’s response mechanism to dimethoate stress.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Persistent organic pollutants in lakes of Broknes peninsula at Larsemann Hills area, East Antarctica

Abstract

Anthropogenic activity in East Antarctica has increased since the last 2–3 decades because of various scientific expeditions. Additionally, global pollution due to various newly introduced pollutants like pesticides is on use since the past century and many factors contribute to contamination even in Antarctica. During thirty fourth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in austral summer of 2014–2015, fifteen lake water samples were collected from five different lakes at Broknes peninsula, Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) residue levels found in lake water samples varied from 10.33–70.00 pg/mL in five different lakes. Presence of p,p’-DDT was detected in all different lakes but high concentration found in P4 lake water. After study confirms that Broknes peninsula in the Larsemann Hills area, East Antarctica has a trace amount of POPs which is an alarming situation and needs to be investigated further to maintain the pristine environment in Antarctica. The presence of POPs may be attributed to orographic effects, migratory birds, biomagnification and anthropogenic sources. In the future, new emerging pollutants must be analyzed like microplastics, phthalate, Paraxanthene etc.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Impact of Ridomil, Bavistin and Agrothoate on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization, biochemical changes and potassium content of cucumber plants

Abstract

The effect of pesticides on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plants are of interest to agriculture. Hence, the present study was conducted to understand the potential effect of two systemic fungicides (Ridomil “250 and 500 mg/L” and Bavistin “500 and 1000 mg/L”) and one insecticide (Agrothoate 40% EC “1.25 and 2.50 ml/L H2O”) on AM fungal colonization, some biochemical changes and K+ content of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.). AM and non-AM cucumber plants were exposed to two concentrations of each pesticide. Results revealed an increase in mycorrhizal colonization (F%) with Ridomil and Bavistin applications however there was a decrease in this percentage with Agrothoate. Stimulation of phosphatase enzymes activity was observed subsequent to pesticides application. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in K+ content with increasing pesticides concentration, and this decrease was more distinct in non-AM cucumber plants than AM ones. Our results also showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in all pesticides treated cucumber plants relative to control ones. Thus, the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as phenolic and flavonoids was stimulated by pesticides application and with AM fungal inoculation, further augmentation in their contents was detected. Therefore AM fungi can partially or completely alleviate pesticides toxicity and helpful to overcome some of their negative effects on the biochemical metabolites of cucumber. Thus the judicious use of these pesticides may have stimulatory effect on AM fungal colonization.


Datum: 01.07.2019


The effect of oil sludge contamination on morphological and physiological characteristics of some tree species

Abstract

Although petroleum plays an important part in world economy, its exploitation can bring about a great deal of contamination in soil. To select the tree species being tolerant to soil pollution, a pot experiment has been carried out to assess and compare the growth potential of the seedlings of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.), Ailantos (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and Ash (Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill.) in petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The seeds of the mentioned species were subjected to different oil sludge concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 40%) for a growth season of 240 days and then seedling emergence, growth performance, biomass production, photosynthetic parameters and heavy metal absorption were measured to find the species with higher resistantce. For all the species, seedling emergence was significantly reduced under the soil pollution among which F. rotundifolia exhibited a better performance. Besides, growth and biomass of F. rotundifolia and R. pseudoacacia were seldom influenced by oil sludge. In addition, seedlings of A. altissima accumulated higher percentage of the heavy metals (particularly Ni, Cu, Cd) in their leaves by virtue of their wider leaf surface area. This study provides valuable insights into phytoremediation of sites contaminated by oil sludge, using tree species.


Datum: 01.07.2019


The direct effects of a tropical natural humic substance to three aquatic species and its influence on their sensitivity to copper

Abstract

Few studies have been conducted so far into the effects of humic substances (HS) on aquatic organisms and their influence on the toxicity of chemical pollutants in the tropics. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the direct effects of locally-derived tropical natural HS on the cladoceran Daphnia similis, the midge Chironomus xanthus and the fish Danio rerio. The influence of a HS concentration series on the acute toxicity of copper to these organisms was also assessed through laboratory toxicity testing. The HS did not exert direct acute effects on the test organisms, but long-term exposure to higher HS concentrations provoked a stress response (increase in feces production) to D. rerio and exerted effects on chironomid adult emergence and sex ratio. The biotic ligand model proved to be a useful tool in converting total copper concentrations to the appropriate bio-available fraction to which tropical aquatic organisms are exposed.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Inhibitory effect of nitrate/nitrite on the microbial reductive dissolution of arsenic and iron from soils into pore water

Abstract

It was well established that microbial communities are the major drive for the formation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. However, it remains to be elucidated for how nitrate/nitrite affects the microorganisms-catalyzed dissolution and reduction of arsenic. To address this issue, we collected soil samples containing high-contents of arsenic from the Shimen Realgar Mine area. Microcosm assay indicated that addition of nitrate/nitrite significantly inhibited the dissolution, reduction and release of As and Fe caused by the biological catalysis of microbial communities in the soils, meanwhile nitrate/nitrite was reduced into N2. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of this finding, we used a representative dissimilatory arsenate-respiring strain Shewanella sp. GL90 from the soils to perform the arsenic release assay. GL90 can efficiently catalyze the reductive dissolution, and promote the release of As and Fe in soils. It is interesting to see that the addition of nitrate/nitrite to the soils led to marked decreases in the GL90-mediated dissolution of As and Fe in the soils. Moreover, we found that this finding was attributed to that nitrate/nitrite significantly inhibited the transcription of the gene of the respiratory arsenate reductase protein in GL90 cells. This work provided new insights into the mechanisms for the coupling of As, N and Fe geochemical cycles in arsenic-rich soils, and for how environmental factors affect As concentration in groundwater.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Atrazine exposure shifts activity but has minimal effects on courtship in an agrobiont spider

Abstract

The behavior of many animals relies upon the input of chemical signals throughout the environment. Those animals that live in close proximity to humans may then be at risk, as the input of anthropogenic chemicals can have significant sublethal effects by masking or altering these naturally occurring signals. While the herbicide atrazine has been found to have the potential to alter such chemical information, research is lacking on how it may impact agrobiont arthropods which are the first and most direct line of exposure. Here we investigated the sublethal effects atrazine may be playing on an agrobiont wolf spider that makes up a major component of agricultural spider communities in the Eastern United States. We exposed spiders to ecologically relevant doses of atrazine and monitored general activity patterns as well as mating behaviors. We found that while sex determined a large portion of activity variation in these predators, both males and females spent more time mobile but at lower speeds in the presence of atrazine. We did not find any evidence for info-disruption based on male courtship rate and mating success, but with increasing dosage of atrazine came shortened bouts of courtship leading to copulation. These results suggest that atrazine changed activity patterns of a wolf spider, which may result in altered foraging, survival, and reproduction.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Salinity-induced alterations in plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lead transportation and accumulation in Suaeda salsa : implications for phytoremediation

Abstract

Halophytes have been considered promising candidates for accumulating heavy metals from saline soils; however, little information has been given on plant physiological responses and heavy metal transportation and accumulation in halophytes that grow in heavy metal-polluted saline soils. This study hypothesized that salinity or heavy metals could induce alterations in plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activities and accumulation and transportation of heavy metals or sodium (Na) in Suaeda salsa. Pot experiments were conducted to test the above hypothesis. Lead (Pb) was selected as the representative heavy metal, and NaCl was added to simulate the Pb-polluted saline soil. The results showed that 0.5% NaCl addition alleviated the inhibition of plant growth under moderate Pb stress (35 and 100 mg kg−1 Pb levels), while the phytotoxicity on plants was magnified by 1.0% NaCl addition. NaCl weakened the oxidative stress in Pb-treated plants by increasing the activity levels of antioxidative enzymes (dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)). At all Pb levels, as the NaCl addition increased, significant increases were observed in the concentration of Na. The 100 mg kg−1 Pb induced a greater increase in Na concentrations than the 35 mg kg−1 Pb did, while the latter induced a greater increase than the 300 mg kg−1 Pb did. NaCl improved Pb translocation factor and its accumulation in Suaeda salsa under Pb stress, indicating that NaCl improves Pb uptake and translocation from roots to shoots and enhances the phytoextraction of Pb. Compared with the 0.1% NaCl treatment, the 0.5 and 1.0% NaCl treatments increased the concentrations of bioavailable Pb in the rhizosphere by 15.0–19.2 and 28.6–35.1%, respectively, indicating the contribution of salinity in producing more available Pb for plant uptake. Moderate salinity may be profitable for Pb transportation and accumulation in plants when there are positive effects on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activities and Pb availability. These facts suggest that the halophyte Suaeda salsa may be exploited to remediate heavy metal-contaminated saline soils.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Correction to: Mercury accumulation, speciation, and temporal trends in Atlantic Stingrays (Hypanus sabinus)

The corrections are: In the 2nd sentence of the Statistical Analyses section, the current sentence lacks important statistical assumption wording.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Chlorothalonil tolerance of indole producing bacteria associated to wheat ( Triticum turgidum L.) rhizosphere in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico

Abstract

Chlorothalonil is a commonly used fungicide to control the karnal bunt caused by Tilletia indica Mitra in wheat production from the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. Here, the effect of Chlorothalonil on the growth of 132 bacterial strains associated with wheat rhizosphere from the Yaqui Valley was evaluated, as well as their ability to produce indoles. Thirty-three percent of the evaluated strains were inhibited by Chlorothalonil, being Bacillus and Paenibacillus the most inhibited genera, observing an inhibition >50% of their strains. In addition, 49% of the inhibited strains showed the ability to produce indoles (>5 μg/mL), where the genus Bacillus was the most abundant (80%). The remaining strains (67%) were tolerant to the evaluated fungicide, but only 37% of those showed the ability to produce indoles, which could be considered as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). These results showed that Chlorothalonil is not only an antifungal compound but also inhibits the growth of bacterial strains with the ability to produce indoles. Thus, the intensive application of fungicides to agro-systems needs more validation in order to develop sustainable agricultural practices for food production.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Accumulation of heavy metals and biochemical responses in Siberian larch needles in urban area

Abstract

Active urbanization processes exacerbate environmental problems associated with industrial pollution in cities. Urban greening helps reduce level of air pollution and improve microclimate. Selection sensitive plant species (indicators of pollution), and the resistant species (decrease the level pollution) is acute in many countries. The aim of the present work was to establish concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Co and Cd) in the Siberian larch needles grown in various urban land-use (functional) zones of Ulan-Ude (Russia), as well as to determinate and compare the levels of some biochemical compounds. Based on index of soil contamination, the highest heavy metal pollution was found in the highway and industrial zones. The index of biogeochemical transformation of the needle elements composition ranged from 5.1 (minimal level) to 32.2 (strong level). The most polluted sites were along highways, where Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd concentration in the needles were up to 2.5–7.7 times than background values. An important role in the protective system of larch is played by pigments, especially Chl b and carotenoids. Their content in the needles is increased by 1.3–2.2 times. Ratio Chl a/b and ∑Chl/carotenoids decrease as compared to background level; in the first case—due to increase of Chl b content, in the second case—increase of carotenoids level. Highest concentrations of proline, condensed tannins and peroxidase activity were found in needles from urban zones connected with high traffic and industrial emission. Based on the Air Pollution Tolerance Index Siberian larch should be considered sensitive species to air pollution and can be recommended as bioindicator.


Datum: 01.07.2019


Effect of organophosphorus pesticides in juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei : alteration of glycogen, triglycerides, and proteins

Abstract

The presence of pesticides has recently been reported in shrimp farms adjacent to agricultural areas on the east coast of the Gulf of California. This study assessed the possible effect of organophosphorus pesticides in the coastal environment of Sinaloa, México, using the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei as a bioindicator since their presence, abundance or behavior indicate some process or state of the system in which they live. Sublethal bioassays were performed on shrimps in intermolt state using commercial brands of organophosphorus pesticides, chlorpyrifos (0.0015 mg l−1), diazinon (0.0120 mg l−1), methamidophos (1.207 mg l−1), azinphos-methyl (0.0101 mg l−1), and methyl parathion (0.0075 mg l−1) were tested. Results showed reductions in glycogen, triglycerides, and total protein concentrations in shrimp muscle, except for the diazinon treatments, in which an increase in triglyceride level was detected. The observed alterations in the three cellular components were probably due to the metabolic compensation mechanism of the shrimp in reaction to the stress produced by organophosphorus pesticides, which act as endocrine disruptors. The establishment of continuous environmental monitoring programs of the coastal zone of Northwestern Mexico is strongly recommended.


Datum: 20.06.2019


Comparative ecotoxicity of single and binary mixtures exposures of nickel and zinc on growth and biomarkers of Lemna gibba

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) assayed as single and as binary mixture. In addition, how were affected the population growth rates and oxidative stress biomarkers, comparing single to binary exposures. The toxicity tests were performed on Lemna gibba using a 7-day test. All calculations were made using measured total dissolved metal concentrations. IC50-7d, based on growth rate calculated on frond number and fresh weight, were 2.47/3.89 mg/L, and 76.73/76.93 mg/L, for Ni and Zn, respectively. Single metals affected plant growth following a non-linear concentration–response relationship. LOEC values for each metal were obtained at 0.92 and 20.1 mg/L for Ni and Zn, respectively. Biomarkers of the antioxidant response like Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX; EC 1.11.1.11) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX; EC 1.11.1.7) activities in single metals assays were higher than controls, but when similar concentrations were added as mixtures, that increase was reduced and inhibition with respect to the control was observed for GPOX. APOX showed the highest activity. The concentration addition (CA) approach was evaluated and resulted in a correct predictor of Ni-Zn mixture toxicity on Lemna gibba. This was made comparing the EC50 and LOEC, measured taking the growth rate as endpoint, with those expected values according to the CA model. However, the measured biomarkers indicating a positive response to free radicals did not fit to concentration addition model when assayed in the binary mixture. Also, the main activity response of these was observed within a range of concentrations below the LOEC values for the mixture.


Datum: 20.06.2019


Effects of oil sands process water mixtures on the mayfly Hexagenia and field-collected aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

Abstract

Extraction of Canada’s oil sands has created 1 billion m3 of tailings, which are stored in on-site tailings ponds. Due to limited storage capacity, the planned release of tailings into the surrounding environment may be required. This represents an environmental management challenge, as the tailings contain contaminants that are known toxins to aquatic communities. Of particular concern are naphthenic acids and their metallic counterparts, as they are the principal toxic components of tailings, are relatively soluble, and are persistent in aquatic environments. This study examines the acute toxicity of environmentally relevant 10:1 mixtures of two process water components: naphthenic acid and sodium naphthenate. We assess the effects of these simplified oil sands process water (OSPW) mixtures under planned and unplanned tailings release scenarios, using traditional and cutting-edge bioindicators for aquatic invertebrate taxa. We found that safe concentrations for mayflies and other aquatic macroinvertebrates were less than 1 mg/l, as no mayfly taxa survived repeated exposure to this dose in either the 48-h or 72-h acute toxicity test. In the 72-h test, no mayflies survived treatment levels greater than 0.5 mg sodium naphthenate/l. In the mesocosm study, even a 90% dilution of the OSPW mixture was not sufficient to protect sensitive macroinvertebrate communities. The results of this study highlight the potential environmental damage that will occur if OSPW is not carefully managed. This information will aid with the development of a management plan for oil sands tailings ponds, which will provide insight into the potential for process water release into the surrounding environment while conserving unique ecosystems downstream of development in the oil sands region.


Datum: 19.06.2019


Acute toxicity of the insecticide methyl parathion and its hydrolytic product p -nitrophenol to the native Australian cladoceran Daphnia carinata

Abstract

The toxicity of an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, methyl parathion (MP), and its hydrolysis product, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to the native Australian cladoceran species, Daphnia carinata, was assessed. Both MP and PNP were stable in cladoceran water during the test period. D. carinata was sensitive to both MP and PNP; however, the parent compound was more toxic than its metabolite. This is the first study that demonstrated the acute toxicity of MP and PNP towards an Australian daphnid species. The present investigation emphasizes the need for including the native taxa as non-target test organisms while evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants.


Datum: 19.06.2019


Targeted impact of cyproterone acetate on the sexual reproduction of female rotifers

Abstract

Monogonont rotifers constitute, depending on the moment of the year, most of the zooplankton in many freshwater ecosystems. Sexual reproduction is essential in the development cycle of these organisms as it enables them to constitute stocks of cysts which can withstand adverse environmental conditions and hatch when favorable conditions return. However, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can interfere with the reproduction of organisms. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of cyproterone acetate (CPA, anti-androgen and progestogen synthetic steroid) at 0.5 mg L−1, on the sexual reproduction of Brachionus calyciflorus in a cross-mating experiment. Results show no impact on mixis whereas the fertilization rate and resting egg production were higher in females exposed to CPA (from embryogenesis to adult stage), regardless of the treatment applied to the males with which they were mating (i.e. males hatched from CPA-treated females or from control females). Moreover, neonate females which mothers has been exposed to 0.5 mg L−1 CPA had more oocytes in their germarium than control neonates. Our results suggest that the effects of CPA observed are not related to toxicity but rather are consistent with an endocrine disruption-related impact, probably through disturbance of the mate recognition protein (MRP) production and through interference with a steroid receptor. Moreover, the absence of effect on mixis rate indicates that mixis induction on the one hand and mating process and resting production on the other hand are not controlled by the same hormonal pathways.


Datum: 13.06.2019


Involvement of glutamate receptors in regulating calcium influx in rice seedlings under Cr exposure

Abstract

Glutamate receptors (GLRs) are ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable channels that govern and modulate the dynamic influx of cytosolic Ca2+ in plants. The present study investigated the interaction of OsGLR3 gene expression with subcellular Ca distribution in rice seedlings exposed to chromium (Cr) solution containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI). The results displayed that the accumulation of Ca was evaluated or higher in shoots compared to roots under Cr exposure, and a similar pattern of subcellular Ca distribution was observed between rice tissues exposed to Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that eight OsGLR3 isogenes were distinctly expressed in different rice tissues at different levels of Cr exposures. This differential expressions could possible be due to the uptake variations, subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of the two Cr species. Notably, distinct expression patterns of OsGLR3 genes were found between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) exposures, suggesting that different regulation strategies are used to mediate Ca influx in rice materials under different Cr exposures. These results demonstrated a full picture of Cr-induced transcriptional alterations in OsGLR3 expression levels in rice seedlings, and provided suggestive evidence for further investigation on specific OsGLR3 genes participated in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations under Cr exposure.


Datum: 13.06.2019


Historical patterns in mercury exposure for North American songbirds

Abstract

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental contaminant that poses significant risks to the health of humans, wildlife, and ecosystems. Assessing MeHg exposure in biota across the landscape and over time is vital for monitoring MeHg pollution and gauging the effectiveness of regulations intended to reduce new mercury (Hg) releases. We used MeHg concentrations measured in museum specimen feathers (collected between 1869 and 2014) and total Hg concentrations (as a proxy for MeHg) of feathers sampled from wild birds (collected between 2008 and 2017) to investigate temporal patterns in exposure over approximately 150 years for North American songbirds. For individual species, we found greater concentrations for samples collected post-2000 compared to those collected during historic times (pre-1900) for six of seven songbird species. Mean feather concentrations measured in samples collected post-2000 ranged between 1.9 and 17 times (mean 6.6) greater than historic specimens. The proportion of individual songbirds with feather concentrations that exceeded modeled toxicity benchmarks increased in samples collected after 1940. Only 2% of individual songbirds collected prior to 1940 had feather concentrations greater than 2.4 μg/g (a toxicity benchmark related to a 10% decrease in nest success) compared to 35% of individuals collected post-1940. Many species included in this study have a vulnerable or near-threatened conservation status, suggesting recovery actions are needed to address mercury pollution.


Datum: 03.06.2019


Evaluation of the photosynthetic parameters, emission of volatile organic compounds and ultrastructure of common green leafy vegetables after exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Abstract

Understanding the effects of many essential non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on plants is still limited, especially at environmentally realistic concentrations. This paper presents the influence of three of the most frequently used NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen) at environmentally realistic concentrations on the autochthonous green leafy vegetables: orache (Atriplex patula L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Our research was focused on the determination of the photosynthetic parameters, the emission rate of volatile organic compounds, and the evaluation of the ultrastructure of leaves of studied vegetables after exposure to abiotic stress induced by environmental pollutants, namely NSAIDs. The data obtained indicate a moderate reduction of foliage physiological activity as a response to the stress induced by NSAIDs to the selected green leafy vegetables. The increase of the 3-hexenal and monoterpene emission rates with increasing NSAIDs concentration could be used as a sensitive and a rapid indicator to assess the toxicity of the NSAIDs. Microscopic analysis showed that the green leafy vegetables were affected by the selected NSAIDs. In comparison to the controls, the green leafy vegetables treated with NSAIDs presented irregular growth of glandular trichomes on the surface of the adaxial side of the leaves, less stomata, cells with less cytoplasm, irregular cell walls and randomly distributed chloroplasts. Of the three NSAIDs investigated in this study, ibuprofen presented the highest influence. The results obtained in this study can be used to better estimate the impact of drugs on the environment and to improve awareness on the importance of the responsible use of drugs.


Datum: 03.06.2019


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.






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