The international scientific *Journal of Chemical Physics* - JCP - publishes concise and definitive reports of significant research in methods and applications of chemical physics.

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## Journal of Chemical Physics - Abstracts

**Stereoinversion of tetrahedral p-block element hydrides**

Datum: 20.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>The effect of atomic relaxations on the temperature-dependent elastic constants (TDECs) is usually taken into account at zero temperature by the minimization of the total energy at each strain. In this paper, we investigate the order of magnitude of this approximation on a paradigmatic example: the C44 elastic constant of diamond and zincblende materials. We estimate the effect of finite-temperature atomic relaxations within the quasi-harmonic approximation by computing ab initio the internal strain tensor from the second derivatives of the Helmholtz free-energy with respect to strain and atomic displacements. We apply our approach to Si and BAs and find a visible difference between the softening of the TDECs computed with the zero-temperature and finite-temperature atomic relaxations. In Si, the softening of C44 passes from 8.6% to 4.5%, between T = 0 K and T = 1200 K. In BAs, it passes from 8% to 7%, in the same range of temperatures. Finally, from the computed elastic constant corrections, we derive the temperature-dependent Kleinman parameter, which is usually measured in experiments.

Datum: 20.05.2022

**Superconducting Li10Se electride under pressure**

Datum: 20.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>The restricted active space spin–flip (RAS-SF) formalism is a particular form of single-reference configuration interaction that can describe some forms of strong correlation at a relatively low cost and which has recently been formulated for the description of charge-transfer excited states. Here, we introduce both equilibrium and nonequilibrium versions of a state-specific solvation correction for vertical transition energies computed using RAS-SF wave functions, based on the framework of a polarizable continuum model (PCM). Ground-state polarization is described using the solvent’s static dielectric constant and in the nonequilibrium solvation approach that polarization is modified upon vertical excitation using the solvent’s optical dielectric constant. Benchmark calculations are reported for well-studied models of photo-induced charge transfer, including naphthalene dimer, C2H4⋯C2F4, pentacene dimer, and perylene diimide (PDI) dimer, several of which are important in organic photovoltaic applications. For the PDI dimer, we demonstrate that the charge-transfer character of the excited states is enhanced in the presence of a low-dielectric medium (static dielectric constant ɛ0 = 3) as compared to a gas-phase calculation (ɛ0 = 1). This stabilizes mechanistic traps for singlet fission and helps to explain experimental singlet fission rates. We also examine the effects of nonequilibrium solvation on charge-separated states in an intramolecular singlet fission chromophore, where we demonstrate that the energetic ordering of the states changes as a function of solvent polarity. The RAS-SF + PCM methodology that is reported here provides a framework to study charge-separated states in solution and in photovoltaic materials.

Datum: 20.05.2022

**Multiphase organization is a second phase transition within multi-component biomolecular condensates**

Datum: 20.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Glyceline, a green solvent considered for various electrochemical applications, represents a multi-component glass former. Viewed from this perspective, the choline cation and the hydrogen bond donor glycerol, the two major constituents forming this deep eutectic solvent, were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance in a selective manner by means of suitably deuteron-labeled isotopologues. Carried out from far above to far below the glass transition temperature, measurements and analyses of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times reveal that the reorientational dynamics of the components, i.e., of glycerol as well as of chain deuterated choline chloride are slightly different. Possible implications of this finding regarding the hydrogen-bonding pattern in glyceline are discussed. Furthermore, the deuterated methyl groups in choline chloride are exploited as sensitive probes of glyceline’s supercooled and glassy states. Apart from spin relaxometry, a detailed line shape analysis of the CD3 spectra yields valuable insights into the broad intermolecular and intramolecular energy barrier distributions present in this binary mixture.

Datum: 19.05.2022

**Constrained iterative Hirshfeld charges: A variational approach**

Datum: 19.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We present an analytical model describing the transition to a strong coupling regime for an ensemble of emitters resonantly coupled to a localized surface plasmon in a metal–dielectric structure. The response of a hybrid system to an external field is determined by two distinct mechanisms involving collective states of emitters interacting with the plasmon mode. The first mechanism is the near-field coupling between the bright collective state and the plasmon mode, which underpins the energy exchange between the system components and gives rise to exciton-induced transparency minimum in scattering spectra in the weak coupling regime and to emergence of polaritonic bands as the system transitions to the strong coupling regime. The second mechanism is the Fano interference between the plasmon dipole moment and the plasmon-induced dipole moment of the bright collective state as the hybrid system interacts with the radiation field. The latter mechanism is greatly facilitated by plasmon-induced coherence in a system with the characteristic size below the diffraction limit as the individual emitters comprising the collective state are driven by the same alternating plasmon near field and, therefore, all oscillate in phase. This cooperative effect leads to scaling of the Fano asymmetry parameter and of the Fano function amplitude with the ensemble size, and therefore, it strongly affects the shape of scattering spectra for large ensembles. Specifically, with increasing emitter numbers, the Fano interference leads to a spectral weight shift toward the lower energy polaritonic band.

Datum: 19.05.2022

**Multidimensional minimum-work control of a 2D Ising model**

Datum: 19.05.2022

**Desorption of physisorbed molecular oxygen from coronene films and graphite surfaces**

Datum: 19.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Confined electromagnetic modes strongly couple to collective excitations in ensembles of quantum emitters, producing light–matter hybrid states known as polaritons. Under such conditions, the discrete multilevel spectrum of molecular systems offers an appealing playground for exploring multiphoton processes. This work contrasts predictions from the Tavis–Cummings model in which the material is a collection of two-level systems, with the implications of considering additional energy levels with harmonic and anharmonic structures. We discuss the exact eigenspectrum, up to the second excitation manifold, of an arbitrary number N of oscillators collectively coupled to a single cavity mode in the rotating-wave approximation. Elaborating on our group-theoretic approach [New J. Phys. 23, 063081 (2021)], we simplify the brute-force diagonalization of N2 × N2 Hamiltonians to the eigendecomposition of, at most, 4 × 4 matrices for arbitrary N. We thoroughly discuss the eigenstates and the consequences of weak and strong anharmonicities. Furthermore, we find resonant conditions between bipolaritons and anharmonic transitions where two-photon absorption can be enhanced. Finally, we conclude that energy shifts in the polaritonic states induced by anharmonicities become negligible for large N. Thus, calculations with a single or few quantum emitters qualitatively fail to represent the nonlinear optical response of the collective strong coupling regime. Our work highlights the rich physics of multilevel anharmonic systems coupled to cavities absent in standard models of quantum optics. We also provide concise tabulated expressions for eigenfrequencies and transition amplitudes, which should serve as a reference for future spectroscopic studies of molecular polaritons.

Datum: 19.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>High-level quantum chemical computations have provided significant insight into the fundamental physical nature of non-covalent interactions. These studies have focused primarily on gas-phase computations of small van der Waals dimers; however, these interactions frequently take place in complex chemical environments, such as proteins, solutions, or solids. To better understand how the chemical environment affects non-covalent interactions, we have undertaken a quantum chemical study of π–π interactions in an aqueous solution, as exemplified by T-shaped benzene dimers surrounded by 28 or 50 explicit water molecules. We report interaction energies (IEs) using second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory, and we apply the intramolecular and functional-group partitioning extensions of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (ISAPT and F-SAPT, respectively) to analyze how the solvent molecules tune the π–π interactions of the solute. For complexes containing neutral monomers, even 50 explicit waters (constituting a first and partial second solvation shell) change total SAPT IEs between the two solute molecules by only tenths of a kcal mol−1, while significant changes of up to 3 kcal mol−1 of the electrostatic component are seen for the cationic pyridinium–benzene dimer. This difference between charged and neutral solutes is attributed to large non-additive three-body interactions within solvated ion-containing complexes. Overall, except for charged solutes, our quantum computations indicate that nearby solvent molecules cause very little “tuning” of the direct solute–solute interactions. This indicates that differences in binding energies between the gas phase and solution phase are primarily indirect effects of the competition between solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions.

Datum: 18.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We consider chirality in active systems by exemplarily studying the phase behavior of planar systems of interacting Brownian circle swimmers with a spherical shape. For this purpose, we derive a predictive field theory that is able to describe the collective dynamics of circle swimmers. The theory yields a mapping between circle swimmers and noncircling active Brownian particles and predicts that the angular propulsion of the particles leads to a suppression of their motility-induced phase separation, being in line with recent simulation results. In addition, the theory provides analytical expressions for the spinodal corresponding to the onset of motility-induced phase separation and the associated critical point as well as for their dependence on the angular propulsion of the circle swimmers. We confirm our findings by Brownian dynamics simulations. Agreement between results from theory and simulations is found to be good.

Datum: 18.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We characterize a concentrated 7.3 m CaCl2 solution, combining neutron diffraction with chloride isotopic substitution (Cl-NDIS) in null water and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We elucidate the solution structure, thermodynamic properties, and extent of ion pairing previously suggested as concentration-dependent and often not observed at lower concentrations. Our Cl-NDIS measurements designate the solvent-shared ion pairing as dominant and the contact ion pairing (CIP) as insignificant even under conditions close to the solubility limit. The MD models parameterized against neutron diffraction with calcium isotopic substitution (Ca-NDIS) overestimate CIP despite successfully reproducing most of the Cl-NDIS signal. This drawback originates from the fact that Ca2+–Cl− interactions were primarily “hidden” in the Ca-NDIS signal due to overlapping with Ca2+–Ow and Ca2+–Hw contributions to the total scattering. Contrary, MD models with moderate CIP and possessing generally good performance at high concentrations fail to reproduce the NDIS measurements accurately. Therefore, the electronic polarization, introduced in most of the recent MD models via scaling ionic charges, resolves some but not all parameterization drawbacks. We conclude that despite improving the quality of MD models “on average,” the question “which model is the best” has not been answered but replaced by the question “which model is better for a given research.” An overall “good” model can still be inappropriate or, in some instances, “bad” and, unfortunately, produce erroneous results. The accurate interpretation of several NDIS datasets, complemented by MD simulations, can prevent such mistakes and help identify the strengths, weaknesses, and convenient applications for corresponding computational models.

Datum: 18.05.2022

**Field theory description of ion association in re-entrant phase separation of polyampholytes**

Datum: 18.05.2022

**The onset of solidification: From interface formation to the Stefan regime**

Datum: 18.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Non-polarizable empirical potentials have been proven to be incapable of capturing the mixing of methane–water mixtures at elevated pressures. Although density functional theory-based ab initio simulations may circumvent this discrepancy, they are limited in terms of the relevant time and length scales associated with mixing phenomena. Here, we show that the many-body MB-nrg potential, designed to reproduce methane–water interactions with coupled cluster accuracy, successfully captures this phenomenon up to 3 GPa and 500 K with varying methane concentrations. Two-phase simulations and long time scales that are required to fully capture the mixing, affordable due to the speed and accuracy of the MBX software, are assessed. Constructing the methane–water equation of state across the phase diagram shows that the stable mixtures are denser than the sum of their parts at a given pressure and temperature. We find that many-body polarization plays a central role, enhancing the induced dipole moments of methane by 0.20 D during mixing under pressure. Overall, the mixed system adopts a denser state, which involves a significant enthalpic driving force as elucidated by a systematic many-body energy decomposition analysis.

Datum: 18.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>In Paper I [Litman et al., J. Chem. Phys. (in press) (2022)], we presented the ring-polymer instanton with explicit friction (RPI-EF) method and showed how it can be connected to the ab initio electronic friction formalism. This framework allows for the calculation of tunneling reaction rates that incorporate the quantum nature of the nuclei and certain types of non-adiabatic effects (NAEs) present in metals. In this paper, we analyze the performance of RPI-EF on model potentials and apply it to realistic systems. For a 1D double-well model, we benchmark the method against numerically exact results obtained from multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree calculations. We demonstrate that RPI-EF is accurate for medium and high friction strengths and less accurate for extremely low friction values. We also show quantitatively how the inclusion of NAEs lowers the crossover temperature into the deep tunneling regime, reduces the tunneling rates, and, in certain regimes, steers the quantum dynamics by modifying the tunneling pathways. As a showcase of the efficiency of this method, we present a study of hydrogen and deuterium hopping between neighboring interstitial sites in selected bulk metals. The results show that multidimensional vibrational coupling and nuclear quantum effects have a larger impact than NAEs on the tunneling rates of diffusion in metals. Together with Paper I [Litman et al., J. Chem. Phys. (in press) (2022)], these results advance the calculations of dissipative tunneling rates from first principles.

Datum: 17.05.2022

**Static self-induced heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids: Overlap as a microscope**

Datum: 17.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Dynamic shear-modulus data are presented for two silicone oils DC704 and DC705 for frequencies between 1 mHz and 10 kHz at temperatures covering more than five decades of relaxation-time variation. Data are fitted to the alpha part of a phenomenological model previously shown to describe well the dynamic shear modulus of squalane, which has a large beta process [Hecksher et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 154504 (2017)]. That model is characterized by additivity of the alpha and beta shear compliance and by a high-frequency decay of the alpha process in proportion to ω−1/2, where ω is the angular frequency. The fits of the alpha part of this model to the DC704 and DC705 data are compared to fits by a Havriliak–Negami type model, a Barlow–Erginsav–Lamb model, and a Cole–Davidson type model. At all temperatures, the best fit is obtained by the alpha part of the squalane model. This strengthens the conjecture that so-called [math]-relaxation, leading to high-frequency loss decays proportional to ω−1/2, is generic to the alpha relaxation of supercooled liquids [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021502 (2006); Nielsen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 154508 (2009); and Pabst et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 12, 3685–3690 (2021)].

Datum: 17.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Steady-state and time-resolved infrared (IR) studies of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) were carried out, using the asymmetric nitro-stretch as probe, to investigate its solution structures and vibrational energy transfer processes in pure dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and in a DMSO/water mixture. A linear IR spectrum in the nitro-stretching mode region shows two major bands and one minor band in DMSO but changes to the two major bands mainly picture when adding water as an antisolvent of HMX, suggesting a transition from well-solvated and less perfect β-conformation to a less-solvated and close-to-perfect β-conformation. The latter bears a similar asymmetric nitro-stretch vibration profile to the β-polymorph in the crystal form. Density functional theory computations of the nitro-stretching vibrations suggest that HMX in DMSO may be in a NO2 group rotated β-conformation. Two-dimensional IR cross-peak intensity reveals intramolecular energy transfer between the axial and equatorial nitro-groups in the β-HMX on the ps time scale, which is slightly faster in the mixed solvent case. The importance of water as an antisolvent in influencing the equilibrium solvation structure, as well as the vibrational and orientational relaxation dynamics of HMX, is discussed.

Datum: 17.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We consider molecules confined to a microcavity of dimensions such that an excitation of the molecule is nearly resonant with a cavity mode. The molecular excitation energies are assumed to be Gaussianly distributed with mean ϵa and variance σ. We find an asymptotically exact solution for large number density [math]. Conditions for the existence of the polaritonic states and expressions for their energies are obtained. Polaritonic states are found to be quite stable against disorder. Our results are verified by comparison with simulations. When ϵa is equal to energy of the cavity state ϵc, the Rabi splitting is found to increase by [math], where [math] is the coupling of a molecular excitation to the cavity state. An analytic expression is found for the disorder-induced width of the polaritonic peak. Results for various densities of states and the absorption spectrum are presented. The dark states turn “gray” in the presence of disorder with their contribution to the absorption increasing with σ. Lifetimes of the cavity and molecular states are found to be important, and for sufficiently large Rabi splitting, the width of the polaritonic peaks is dominated by them. We also give analytical results for the case where the molecular levels follow a uniform distribution. We conclude that the study of the width of the polaritonic peaks as a function of the Rabi splitting can give information on the distribution of molecular energy levels. Finally, the effects of (a) orientational disorder and (b) spatial variation on the cavity field are presented.

Datum: 17.05.2022

**Biotin-painted proteins have thermodynamic stability switched by kinetic folding routes**

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>The kinetic energy dependences of the reactions of Pt+ (2D5/2) with SO2 were studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer and theory. The observed cationic products are PtO+ and PtSO+, with small amounts of PtS+, all formed in endothermic reactions. Modeling the kinetic energy dependent product cross sections allows determination of the product bond dissociation energies (BDEs): D0(Pt+–O) = 3.14 ± 0.11 eV, D0(Pt+–S) = 3.68 ± 0.31 eV, and D0(Pt+–SO) = 3.03 ± 0.12 eV. The oxide BDE agrees well with more precise literature values, whereas the latter two results are the first such measurements. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed for PtO+, PtS+, PtO2+, and PtSO+ at the B3LYP and coupled-cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple [CCSD(T)] levels of theory using the def2-XZVPPD (X = T, Q) and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T, Q, 5) basis sets and complete basis set extrapolations. These theoretical BDEs agree well with the experimental values. After including empirical spin–orbit corrections, the product ground states are determined as PtO+ (4Σ3/2), PtS+ (4Σ3/2), PtO2+ (2Σg+), and PtSO+ (2A′). Potential energy profiles including intermediates and transition states for each reaction were also calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level. Periodic trends in the thermochemistry of the group 9 metal chalcogenide cations are compared, and the formation of PtO+ from the Pt+ + SO2 reaction is compared with those from the Pt+ + O2, CO2, CO, and NO reactions.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>The accurate resolution of the chemical properties of strongly correlated systems, such as biradicals, requires the use of electronic structure theories that account for both multi-reference and dynamic correlation effects. A variety of methods exist that aim to resolve the dynamic correlation in multi-reference problems, commonly relying on an exponentially scaling complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation to generate reference molecular orbitals (MOs). However, while CASSCF orbitals provide the optimal solution for a selected set of correlated (active) orbitals, their suitability in the quest for the resolution of the total correlation energy has not been thoroughly investigated. Recent research has shown the ability of Kohn–Shan density functional theory to provide improved orbitals for coupled cluster (CC) and Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP) calculations. Here, we extend the search for optimal and more cost effective MOs to post-configuration-interaction [post-(CI)] methods, surveying the ability of the MOs obtained with various density functional theory (DFT) functionals, as well as Hartree–Fock and CC and MP calculations to accurately capture the total electronic correlation energy. Applying the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation to the dissociation of N2, the calculation of biradical singlet–triplet gaps, and the transition states of bicylobutane isomerization, we demonstrate that DFT provides a cost-effective alternative to CASSCF in providing reference orbitals for post-CI dynamic correlation calculations.

Datum: 16.05.2022

**Biasing crystallization in fused silica: An assessment of optimal metadynamics parameters**

Datum: 16.05.2022

**Controlling cluster size in 2D phase-separating binary mixtures with specific interactions**

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We report pure-rotational N2–N2, N2–air, and O2–air S-branch linewidths for temperatures of 80–200 K by measuring the time-dependent decay of rotational Raman coherences in an isentropic free-jet expansion from a sonic nozzle. We recorded pure-rotational hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs/ps CARS) spectra along the axial centerline of the underexpanded jet, within the barrel shock region upstream of the Mach disk. The dephasing of the pure-rotational Raman coherence was monitored using probe-time-delay scans at different axial positions in the jet, corresponding to varying local temperatures and pressures. The local temperature was obtained by fitting CARS spectra acquired at zero probe time delay, where the impact of collisions was minimal. The measured decay of each available Raman transition was fit to a dephasing constant and corrected for the local pressure, which was obtained from the CARS-measured static temperature and thermodynamic relationships for isentropic expansion from the known stagnation state. Nitrogen self-broadened transitions decayed more rapidly than those broadened in air for all temperatures, corresponding to higher Raman linewidths. In general, the measured S-branch linewidths deviated significantly in absolute and relative magnitudes from those predicted by extrapolating the modified exponential gap model to low temperatures. The temperature dependence of the Raman linewidth for each measured rotational state of nitrogen (J ≤ 10) and oxygen (N ≤ 11) was fit to a temperature-dependent power law over the measurable temperature domain (80–200 K) and extrapolated to both higher rotational states and room temperature. The measured and modeled low-temperature linewidth data provided here will aid low temperature gas-phase pressure measurements with fs/ps CARS.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Transitions into the first excited state of carotenoids, Car S1, are optically forbidden in conventional one-photon excitation (OPE) but are possible via two-photon excitation (TPE). This can be used to quantify the amount of Car S1 to Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer in pigment–protein complexes and plants by observing the chlorophyll fluorescence intensity after TPE in comparison to the intensity observed after direct chlorophyll OPE. A parameter, [math], can be derived that directly reflects relative differences or changes in the Car S1 → Chl energy transfer of different pigment–protein complexes and even living plants. However, very careful calibrations are necessary to ensure similar OPE and TPE excitation probabilities and transition energies. In plants, the exact same sample spot must be observed at the same time. All this is experimentally quite demanding. [math] also corrects intrinsically for direct chlorophyll TPE caused by larger chlorophyll excesses in the complexes, but recently it turned out that in certain TPE wavelengths ranges, its contribution can be quite large. Fortunately, this finding opens also the possibility of determining [math] in a much easier way by directly comparing values in TPE spectra observed at wavelengths that are either more dominated by Cars or Chls. This avoids tedious comparisons of OPE and TPE experiments and potentially allows measurement at even only two TPE wavelengths. Here, we explored this new approach to determine [math] directly from single TPE spectra and present first examples using known experimental spectra from Cars, Chl a, Chl b, LHC II, and PS 1.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Photofragment spin–orbit fine-structure branching ratios have long been predicted to depend on the rotational quantum number J′ by theory near the dissociation thresholds of several diatomic molecules, while this has rarely been observed in any photodissociation experiments yet. Here, we measured the fine-structure branching ratios N(2D5/2)/N(2D3/2) produced in the N(2D5/2,3/2) + N(2D5/2,3/2) channel at the b′1Σu+(v = 20) state of 14N2 by using our vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-pump–VUV-probe time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging setup. It is found that 14N2 almost exclusively dissociates into the spin–orbit channel N(2D5/2) + N(2D3/2) at low rotational levels and gradually approaches the statistical or diabatic limit by distributing all possible spin–orbit channels at higher rotational levels. The strongly rotationally dependent fine-structure branching ratios should be due to the increasing strength of nonadiabatic Coriolis interaction among various dissociative states in the so-called “recoupling zone” as J′ increases. They are supposed to provide unprecedented information on the near threshold photodissociation dynamics of 14N2.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Reactions involving adsorbates on metallic surfaces and impurities in bulk metals are ubiquitous in a wide range of technological applications. The theoretical modeling of such reactions presents a formidable challenge for theory because nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) can play a prominent role and the coupling of the atomic motion with the electrons in the metal gives rise to important non-adiabatic effects (NAEs) that alter atomic dynamics. In this work, we derive a theoretical framework that captures both NQEs and NAEs and, due to its high efficiency, can be applied to first-principles calculations of reaction rates in high-dimensional realistic systems. More specifically, we develop a method that we coin ring polymer instanton with explicit friction (RPI-EF), starting from the ring polymer instanton formalism applied to a system–bath model. We derive general equations that incorporate the spatial and frequency dependence of the friction tensor and then combine this method with the ab initio electronic friction formalism for the calculation of thermal reaction rates. We show that the connection between RPI-EF and the form of the electronic friction tensor presented in this work does not require any further approximations, and it is expected to be valid as long as the approximations of both underlying theories remain valid.

Datum: 16.05.2022

**Alignment and propulsion of squirmer pusher–puller dumbbells**

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We propose an alternative theory for the relaxation of density fluctuations in glass-forming fluids. We derive an equation of motion for the density correlation function that is local in time and is similar in spirit to the equation of motion for the average non-uniform density profile derived within the dynamic density functional theory. We identify the Franz–Parisi free energy functional as the non-equilibrium free energy for the evolution of the density correlation function. An appearance of a local minimum of this functional leads to a dynamic arrest. Thus, the ergodicity breaking transition predicted by our theory coincides with the dynamic transition of the static approach based on the same non-equilibrium free energy functional.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Absorption of slow moving electrons by neutral ground state nucleobases has been known to produce resonance metastable states. There are indications that such metastable states may play a key role in DNA/RNA damage. Therefore, herein, we present an ab initio non-Hermitian investigation of the resonance positions and decay rates for the low lying shape-type states of the uracil anion. In addition, we calculate the complex transition dipoles between these resonance states. We employ the resonance via Padé (RVP) method to calculate these complex properties from real stabilization curves by analytical dilation into the complex plane. This method has already been successfully applied to many small molecular systems, and herein, we present the first application of RVP to a medium-sized system. The presented resonance energies are optimized with respect to the size of the basis set and compared with previous theoretical studies and experimental findings. Complex transition dipoles between the shape-type resonances are computed using the optimal basis set. The ability to calculate ab initio energies and lifetimes of biologically relevant systems paves the way for studying reactions of such systems in which autoionization takes place, while the ability to also calculate their complex transition dipoles opens the door for studying photo-induced dynamics of such biological molecules.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Although triazoles and tetrazole are amphoteric and may behave as weak acids, the latter property can be hugely enhanced by beryllium bonds. To explain this phenomenon, the structure and bonding characteristics of the complexes between triazoles and tetrazoles with one and two molecules of BeF2 have been investigated through the use of high-level G4 ab initio calculations. The formation of the complexes between the N basic sites of the azoles and the Be center of the BeF2 molecule and the (BeF2)2 dimer leads to a significant bonding perturbation of both interacting subunits. The main consequence of these electron density rearrangements is the above-mentioned increase in the intrinsic acidity of the azole subunit, evolving from a typical nitrogen base to a very strong nitrogenous acid. This effect is particularly dramatic when the interaction involves the (BeF2)2 dimer, that is, a Lewis acid much stronger than the monomer. Although the azoles investigated have neighboring N-basic sites, their interaction with the (BeF2)2 dimer yields a monodentate complex. However, the deprotonated species becomes extra-stabilized because a second N–Be bond is formed, leading to a new five-membered ring, with the result that the azole-(BeF2)2 complexes investigated become stronger nitrogenous acids than oxyacids such as perchloric acid.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>Beryllium ammonia complexes Be(NH3)4 are known to bear two diffuse electrons in the periphery of a Be(NH3)42+ skeleton. The replacement of one ammonia with a methyl group forms CH3Be(NH3)3 with one peripheral electron, which is shown to maintain the hydrogenic-type shell model observed for Li(NH3)4. Two CH3Be(NH3)3 monomers are together linked by aliphatic chains to form strongly bound beryllium ammonia complexes, (NH3)3Be(CH2)nBe(NH3)3, n = 1–6, with one electron around each beryllium ammonia center. In the case of a linear carbon chain, this system can be seen as the analog of two hydrogen atoms approaching each other at specific distances (determined by n). We show that the two electrons occupy diffuse s-type orbitals and can couple exactly as in H2 in either a triplet or singlet state. For long hydrocarbon chains, the singlet is an open-shell singlet nearly degenerate with the triplet spin state, which transforms to a closed-shell singlet for n = 1 imitating the σ-covalent bond of H2. The biradical character of the system is analyzed, and the singlet–triplet splitting is estimated as a function of n based on multi-reference calculations. Finally, we consider the case of bent hydrocarbon chains, which allows the closer proximity of the two diffuse electrons for larger chains and the formation of a direct covalent bond between the two diffuse electrons, which happens for two Li(NH3)4 complexes converting the open-shell to closed-shell singlets. The energy cost for bending the hydrocarbon chain is nearly compensated by the formation of the weak covalent bond rendering bent and linear structures nearly isoenergetic.

Datum: 16.05.2022

The Journal of Chemical Physics, Volume 156, Issue 19, May 2022. <br/>We extend the twin-space formulation of the hierarchical equations of motion approach in combination with the matrix product state representation [R. Borrelli, J. Chem. Phys. 150, 234102 (2019)] to nonequilibrium scenarios where the open quantum system is coupled to a hybrid fermionic and bosonic environment. The key ideas used in the extension are a reformulation of the hierarchical equations of motion for the auxiliary density matrices into a time-dependent Schrödinger-like equation for an augmented multi-dimensional wave function as well as a tensor decomposition into a product of low-rank matrices. The new approach facilitates accurate simulations of non-equilibrium quantum dynamics in larger and more complex open quantum systems. The performance of the method is demonstrated for a model of a molecular junction exhibiting current-induced mode-selective vibrational excitation.

Datum: 16.05.2022

**Near-exact treatment of seniority-zero ground and excited states with a Richardson–Gaudin mean-field**

Datum: 16.05.2022

**Category: Current Chemistry Research**

**Last update: **28.03.2018.

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