Hide Menu
Hide Menu   Home   |     About Us   |   Contact   |   Imprint   |   Privacy   |   Sitemap
Hide Menu   Chemistry Index   |   Chemicals   |   Chemical Elements
Hide Menu   Lab Instruments   |  
Hide Menu   Job Vacancies   |  
Hide Menu   Chemistry Forum   |  
Chemistry A - Z
Equipment for Lab and Industry
Chemicals and Compounds
Job Vacancies
Imprint, Contact

 

Amino Acids (Journal)

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..




The international scientific journal Amino Acids publishes contributions from all fields of amino acid and protein research: analysis, separation, synthesis, biosynthesis, cross linking amino acids, racemization/enantiomers, modification of amino acids as phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, glycosylation and nonenzymatic glycosylation, new roles for amino acids in physiology and pathophysiology, biology, amino acid analogues and derivatives, polyamines, radiated amino acids, peptides, stable isotopes and isotopes of amino acids. Applications in medicine, food chemistry, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurochemistry, pharmacology, excitatory amino acids are just some of the topics covered.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

To search this web page for specific words type "Ctrl" + "F" on your keyboard (Command + "F" on a Mac). Then: type the word you are searching for in the window that pops up!

Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. A magazine with similar content (amino acids) is:

 - Journal of Amino Acids (Hindawi).



Amino Acids (Journal) - Abstracts



GC–MS measurement of spermidine and putrescine in serum of elderly subjects: intriguing association between spermidine and homoarginine

Abstract

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) methods were developed, validated and used to measure serum spermidine (SPD) and putrescine (PUT) in 9 seropositive Helicobacter pylori (Hp +) and 18 seronegative Helicobacter pylori (Hp −) subjects (31–105 years). Homoarginine (hArg) was also measured by GC–MS. There were no statistical differences (unpaired t test) between the Hp + and Hp − subjects with respect to the serum concentrations of SPD (67.6 ± 40.3 vs. 93.7 ± 37.7 nM, P = 0.109), PUT (220 ± 139 vs. 236 ± 85 nM, P = 0.708) and hArg (1.60 ± 0.64 µM vs. 1.83 ± 0.74 µM, P = 0.554). Serum SPD and hArg concentrations correlated with each other (r = 0.426, P = 0.026, n = 27). The PUT/SPD molar ratio correlated inversely with the hArg concentration (r = − 0.406, P = 0.034, n = 27) and proteinic citrulline (r = − 0.487, P = 0.01, n = 27). These results suggest that SPD and PUT synthesis is associated with hArg formation and protein citrullination in healthy elderly subjects. The mechanisms underlying these associations and their significance remain to be elucidated.


Datum: 20.09.2019


High plasma guanidinoacetate-to-homoarginine ratio is associated with high all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rate in adult renal transplant recipients

Abstract

l-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is the main producer of the creatine precursor, guanidinoacetate (GAA), and l-homoarginine (hArg). We and others previously reported lower levels of circulating and urinary hArg in renal transplant recipients (RTR) compared to healthy subjects. In adults, hArg emerged as a novel risk factor for renal and cardiovascular adverse outcome. Urinary GAA was found to be lower in children and adolescents with kidney transplants compared to healthy controls. Whether GAA is also a risk factor in the renal and cardiovascular systems of adults, is not yet known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the significance of circulating GAA and the GAA-to-hArg molar ratio (GAA/hArg) in adult RTR. We hypothesized that GAA/hArg represents a measure of the balanced state of the AGAT activity in the kidneys, and would prospectively allow assessing a potential association between GAA/hArg and long-term outcome in RTR. The median follow-up period was 5.4 years. Confounders and potential mediators of GAA/hArg associations were evaluated with multivariate linear regression analyses, and the association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality or death-censored graft loss was studied with Cox regression analyses. The study cohort consisted of 686 stable RTR and 140 healthy kidney donors. Median plasma GAA concentration was significantly lower in the RTR compared to the kidney donors before kidney donation: 2.19 [1.77–2.70] µM vs. 2.78 [2.89–3.35] µM (P < 0.001). In cross-sectional multivariable analyses in RTR, HDL cholesterol showed the strongest association with GAA/hArg. In prospective analyses in RTR, GAA/hArg was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 1.35 [95% CI 1.19–1.53]) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.46 [95% CI 1.24–1.73]), independent of potential confounders. GAA but not GAA/hArg was associated with death-censored graft loss in crude survival and Cox regression analyses. The association of GAA and death-censored graft loss was lost after adjustment for eGFR. Our study suggests that in the kidneys of RTR, the AGAT-catalyzed biosynthesis of GAA is decreased. That high GAA/hArg is associated with a higher risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality may suggest that low plasma hArg is a stronger contributor to these adverse outcomes in RTR than GAA.


Datum: 18.09.2019


Synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic α-dehydro-β-amino acids as scaffolds for bioactive compounds

Abstract

The synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic α-dehydro-β-amino acids has been performed starting from alkylidene acetacetamides, which were obtained from α-amino esters via Ir-catalyzed allylic amination. Differently hindered carbonates were synthesized via a protocol involving chemoselective Luche’s reduction, acylation, and allylic amination. Depending on the nature of the selected α-amino acid, we observed strong influence on the product regiochemistry due to the carbonate size and the amino-acid side chain. In particular, complete regioselectivity was observed in the aminic allylation of carbonates deriving from amino acids possessing a methylene unit in β-position. On the contrary, methyl carbonates deriving from β-branched amino acid afforded different results depending on the hindrance of the carbonate. Moreover, spontaneous cyclization was observed for carbamate-containing intermediates, allowing to obtain peptidomimetic polyfunctionalized dihydropyrimidine-2,4-dione. Finally, by inverting the order of reduction/acylation steps on the starting alkylidene acetoacetamides, the formation of polyfunctionalized 1,3-oxazinane-2,4-dione was obtained demonstrating the wide applications of these substrates for the preparation of bioactive peptidomimetics.


Datum: 13.09.2019


The investigation of structure–activity relationship of polyamine-targeted synthetic compounds from different chemical groups

Abstract

The polyamine (PA) metabolism is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Increased cellular PA levels are observed in different types of cancers. Products of PA oxidation induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These observations open a perspective to exploit the enzymes of PA catabolism as a target for anticancer drug design. The substances capable to enhance PA oxidation may become potential anticancer agents. The goal of our study was to explore how the mode of ligand binding with a PA catabolic enzyme is associated with its stimulatory or inhibitory effect upon PA oxidation. Murine N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (5LFO) crystalline structure was used for molecular docking with ligands of various chemical structures. In vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate the action of the tested compounds upon PA oxidative deamination in a cell-free test system from rat liver. Two amino acid residues (Aps211 and Tyr204) in the structure of 5LFO were found to be significant for binding with the tested compounds. 19 out of 51 screened compounds were activators and 17 were inhibitors of oxidative deamination of PA. Taken together, these results enabled to construct a recognition model with characteristic descriptors depicting activators and inhibitors. The general tendency indicated that a strong interaction with Asp211 or Tyr204 was rather typical for activators. The understanding of how the structure determines the binding mode of compounds with PA catabolic enzyme may help in explanation of their structure–activity relationship and thus promote structure-based drug design.


Datum: 13.09.2019


Moderate protective effect of Kyotorphin against the late consequences of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract

The established decrease in the level of endogenous kyotorphin (KTP) into the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with an advanced stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the found neuroprotective activity of KTP suggested its participation in the pathophysiology of the disease. We aimed to study the effects of subchronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment (14 days) with KTP on the behavioral, biochemical and histological changes in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-ICV)-induced model of sporadic AD (sAD). Three months after the administration of STZ-ICV, rats developed increased locomotor activity, decreased level of anxiety, impaired spatial and working memory. Histological data from the STZ-ICV group demonstrated decreased number of neurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus. The STZ-ICV group was characterized with a decrease of total protein content in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex as well as increased levels of the carbonylated proteins in the hippocampus. KTP treatment of STZ-ICV rats normalized anxiety level and regained object recognition memory. KTP abolished the protein loss in prefrontal cortex and decrease the neuronal loss in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus. STZ-ICV rats, treated with KTP, did not show significant changes in the levels of the carbonylated proteins in specific brain structures or in motor activity and spatial memory compared to the saline-treated STZ-ICV group. Our data show a moderate and selective protective effect of a subchronic ICV administration of the dipeptide KTP on the pathological changes induced by an experimental model of sAD in rats.


Datum: 13.09.2019


Design of therapeutically improved analogue of the antimicrobial peptide, indolicidin, using a glycosylation strategy

Abstract

Indolicidin is a member of cathelicidin family which displays broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Severe toxicity and aggregation propensity associated with indolicidin pose a huge limitation to its probable therapeutic application. We are reporting the use of glycosylation strategy to design an analogue of indolicidin and subsequently explore structural and functional effects of sugar on it. Our study led to the design of a potent antibacterial glycosylated peptide, [βGlc-T9,K7]indolicidin, which showed decreased toxicity against erythrocytes and macrophage cells and thus a higher therapeutic selectivity. The incorporation of sugar also increased the solubility of the peptide. The mode of bacterial killing, functional stability, LPS binding, and cytokine inhibitory potential of the peptide, however, seemed unaffected upon glycosylation. Absence of significant changes in structure upon glycosylation accounts for the possibly retained functions and mode of action of the peptide. Our report thus presents the designing of an indolicidin analogue with improved therapeutic potential by substituting aromatic amino acid with glycosylated amino acid as a promising strategy for the first time.


Datum: 04.09.2019


Insights into the molecular features of the von Hippel–Lindau-like protein

Abstract

We present an in silico characterization of the von Hippel–Lindau-like protein (VLP), the only known human paralog of the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). Phylogenetic investigation showed VLP to be mostly conserved in upper mammals and specifically expressed in brain and testis. Structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations show VLP to be very similar to pVHL three-dimensional organization and binding dynamics. In particular, conservation of elements at the protein interfaces suggests VLP to be a functional pVHL homolog potentially possessing multiple functions beyond HIF-1α-dependent binding activity. Our findings show that VLP may share at least seven interactors with pVHL, suggesting novel functional roles for this understudied human protein. These may occur at precise hypoxia levels where functional overlap with pVHL may permit a finer modulation of pVHL functions.


Datum: 04.09.2019


Oral taurine improves critical power and severe-intensity exercise tolerance

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of acute oral taurine ingestion on: (1) the power–time relationship using the 3-min all-out test (3MAOT); (2) time to exhaustion (TTE) 5% > critical power (CP) and (3) the estimated time to complete (Tlim) a range of fixed target intensities. Twelve males completed a baseline 3MAOT test on a cycle ergometer. Following this, a double-blind, randomised cross-over design was followed, where participants were allocated to one of four conditions, separated by 72 h: TTE + taurine; TTE + placebo; 3MAOT + taurine; 3MAOT + placebo. Taurine was provided at 50 mg kg−1, whilst the placebo was 3 mg kg−1 maltodextrin. CP was higher (P < 0.05) in taurine (212 ± 36 W) than baseline (197 ± 40 W) and placebo (193 ± 35 W). Work end power was not affected by supplement (P > 0.05), yet TTE 5% > CP increased (P < 0.05) by 1.7 min after taurine (17.7 min) compared to placebo (16.0 min) and there were higher (P < 0.001) estimated Tlim across all work targets. Acute supplementation of 50 mg kg−1 of taurine improved CP and estimated performance at a range of severe work intensities. Oral taurine can be taken prior to exercise to enhance endurance performance.


Datum: 03.09.2019


The self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) via column chromatography of β-amino-α,α-difluorophosphonic acid derivatives

Abstract

This work presents the first study of the self-disproportionation of enantiomers via chromatography (SDEvC) of β-aminophosphonic acid esters, several of which have been synthesized for the first time. Three types of structures were examined, N-acetylated, dipeptide construction with N-Cbz glycine, and a free amine. In the latter case, this is the first time that SDEvC has been reported for free amine amino acids. In all the three types of structures, significant SDE magnitudes (Δee’s up to 55%) were exhibited underscoring the ubiquitous nature of the SDE phenomenon. Chemical models of homo- versus heterochiral intermolecular interactions are proposed to rationalize the SDE magnitude differences amongst these new β-aminophosphonic acid derivatives. In addition, the incorporation of additional, competing binding modes to a molecule, was found to lead to a reduction of the SDE magnitude by shifting the intermolecular binding away from the stereogenic center and/or by leading to a convoluted binding system that disrupts the structured and relatively stable assemblies that give rise to the SDE.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Pregabalin peptides: conformational comparison of γ 3 - and γ 4 -substituted γ-amino acids in αγααα pentapeptides

Abstract

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, gammaAbu), an unsubstituted gamma-amino acid, is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. The role of GABA in the treatment of epilepsy has triggered a great deal of interest in substituted gamma-amino acids, which may serve as GABA analogs, acting as inhibitors of GABA aminotransferase. Pregabalin (Pgn), a well-known antiepileptic drug, is also a beta-substituted gamma3-amino acid. Pregabalin and gamma4Leu, an isomer of the pregabalin (Pgn) residue, both carrying the same isobutyryl group in the side chain, were introduced in the present study to have a comparison of their respective conformational differences as well as their role in influencing the overall conformation of the peptides, they are inserted in. Two alpha–gamma–alpha–alpha–alpha hybrid pentapeptides were designed that contain Aib-Pgn and Aib-gamma4Leu segments at the N terminus. The study provides a detailed analysis of the conformational properties and non-covalent interactions observed in the crystal structures of two polymorphs of the pentapeptide monohydrate, Boc-Aib-(S)Pgn-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (C38H63N5O8·H2O) and the isomeric pentapeptide, Boc-Aib-gamma4(R)Leu-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (C38H63N5O8), obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments.


Datum: 01.09.2019


A metabolic study to decipher amino acid catabolism-directed biofuel synthesis in Acetoanaerobium sticklandii DSM 519

Abstract

Acetoanaerobium sticklandii DSM 519 is a hyper-ammonia-producing anaerobe. It has the ability to produce organic solvents and acids from protein catabolism through Stickland reactions and specialized pathways. Nevertheless, its protein catabolism-directed biofuel production has not yet been understood. The present study aimed to decipher such growth-associated metabolic potential of this organism at different growth phases using metabolic profiling. A seed culture of this organism was grown separately in metabolic assay media supplemented with gelatin and or a mixture of amino acids. The extracellular metabolites produced by this organism were qualitatively analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry platform. The residual amino acids after protein degradation and amino acids assimilation were identified and quantitatively measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Organic solvents and acids produced by this organism were detected and the quantity of them determined with HPLC. Metabolic profiling data confirmed the presence of amino acid catabolic products including tyramine, cadaverine, methylamine, and putrescine in fermented broth. It also found products including short-chain fatty acids and organic solvents of the Stickland reactions. It reported that amino acids were more appropriate for its growth yield compared to gelatin. Results of quantitative analysis of amino acids indicated that many amino acids either from gelatin or amino acid mixture were catabolised at a log-growth phase. Glycine and proline were poorly consumed in all growth phases. This study revealed that apart from Stickland reactions, a specialized system was established in A. sticklandii for protein catabolism-directed biofuel production. Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE), acetic acid, and butyric acid were the most important biofuel components produced by this organism. The production of these components was achieved much more on gelatin than amino acids. Thus, A. sticklandii is suggested herein as a potential organism to produce butyric acid along with ABE from protein-based wastes (gelatin) in bio-energy sectors.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Modified cysteine S-phosphopeptide standards for mass spectrometry-based proteomics

Abstract

The regulatory role of protein cysteine phosphorylation is an under-researched area. The difficulty of accessing reference S-phosphorylated peptides (pCys-peptides) hampers progress in MS-driven cysteine phosphoproteomics, which requires targeted analytical procedures. This work describes an uncomplicated process for the conversion of disulfide-bridged protein into a complex model mixture of combinatorially modified peptides. Hen egg-white lysozyme was reduced with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) followed by alkylation of cysteine with (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride (APTA) and subsequent beta-elimination in aqueous Ba(OH)2 to yield modified polypeptides containing multiple dehydroalanine (Dha) residues. The conjugate addition of thiophosphoric acid to Dha residues followed by trypsinolysis led to numerous D/L phosphocysteine-containing peptides, which were identified by higher-energy collisional-dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (HCD-MS/MS). Our results show that some pCys-peptides produce prominent neutral losses of 80 Da, 98 Da and a weak 116 Da loss. These are similar to the neutral-loss triplets generated by phosphohistidine peptides.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Taurine modulates hepatic oxidative status and gut inflammatory markers of European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) fed plant feedstuffs-based diets

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of taurine (tau) supplementation to low fishmeal (FM) diets on growth performance, oxidative status, and immune response of European seabass juveniles. Four isoproteic (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (19% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain either 25 or 12.5% FM and a mixture of plant feedstuffs, supplemented or not with 1% tau. Twelve groups of 20 fish (IBW = 9.4 g) were fed each diet for 9 weeks. Reduction of dietary FM from 25 to 12.5% impaired growth performance, feed efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio but had no effect on nitrogen retention (% N intake). Independently of FM level, dietary tau supplementation improved growth performance and nitrogen retention without affecting feed efficiency. Dietary FM level reduction increased liver G6PDH activity, but did not affect lipid peroxidation or activities of redox key enzymes. Contrarily, dietary tau supplementation decreased hepatic G6PDH and GPX activities and lipid peroxidation. Gene expression COX-2 was not affected either by FM or tau levels but TNF-α increased with the reduction of FM level but not with the tau level. Dietary tau supplementation decreased Casp3 and Casp9 expression regardless of dietary FM level. Overall, this study evidenced that dietary tau supplementation improved growth performance and antioxidant response and reduced intestine inflammatory and apoptosis processes.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Establishment of reference values for the lysine acetylation marker N ɛ -acetyllysine in small volume human plasma samples by a multi-target LC–MS/MS method

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) constitute substantial burdens for public health. The identification and validation of risk markers for CVD and CKD in epidemiological studies requires frequent adaption of existing analytical methods as well as development of new methods. In this study, an analytical procedure to simultaneously quantify ten endogenous biomarkers for CVD and CKD is described. An easy-to-handle sample preparation requiring only 20 µL of human plasma is followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The method was successfully validated according to established guidelines meeting required criteria for accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, selectivity, and limits of quantification. The scalability of the method for application in larger cohorts was assessed using a set of plasma samples from healthy volunteers (n = 391) providing first reference values for the recently established biomarker Nɛ-acetyllysine (Nɛ-AcLys). Other biomarkers analyzed were creatinine, β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB), carnitine, 1-methylnicotinamide (1-MNA), citrulline, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), homoarginine (hArg), and ornithine. All obtained results are within reference values specified elsewhere. Overall, these results demonstrate the suitability of the method for simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous biomarkers for CVD and CKD in plasma samples from larger cohorts and allow validation of Nɛ-AcLys as a biomarker in large cohorts.


Datum: 01.09.2019


PaleAle 5.0: prediction of protein relative solvent accessibility by deep learning

Abstract

Predicting the three-dimensional structure of proteins is a long-standing challenge of computational biology, as the structure (or lack of a rigid structure) is well known to determine a protein’s function. Predicting relative solvent accessibility (RSA) of amino acids within a protein is a significant step towards resolving the protein structure prediction challenge especially in cases in which structural information about a protein is not available by homology transfer. Today, arguably the core of the most powerful prediction methods for predicting RSA and other structural features of proteins is some form of deep learning, and all the state-of-the-art protein structure prediction tools rely on some machine learning algorithm. In this article we present a deep neural network architecture composed of stacks of bidirectional recurrent neural networks and convolutional layers which is capable of mining information from long-range interactions within a protein sequence and apply it to the prediction of protein RSA using a novel encoding method that we shall call “clipped”. The final system we present, PaleAle 5.0, which is available as a public server, predicts RSA into two, three and four classes at an accuracy exceeding 80% in two classes, surpassing the performances of all the other predictors we have benchmarked.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Synthesis, in vitro biological activity and docking of new analogs of BIM-23052 containing unnatural amino acids

Abstract

Somatostatin (SST) is an endogenous cyclic tetradecapeptide hormone that exerts multiple biological activities via a family of five receptors. BIM-23052 (DC-23-99) d-Phe-Phe-Phe-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe-Thr-NH2 is a linear SST analog with established in vitro GH-inhibitory activity and high affinity to sstr5, sstr3 and sstr2. The different SSTR subtypes are expressed in different tissues and in some tumor cells. Based on this finding, a series of new analogs of BIM-23052 with expected antitumor activity have been synthesized. The Thr at position 6 in BIM-23052 was replaced by the conformationally hindered Tle, Aib, Ac5c and Ac6c of the new analogs. The peptides were synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide chemistry methods, Fmoc strategy. The cytotoxic effects of the compounds were tested in vitro against a panel of tumor cell lines: HT-29, MDA-MB-23, Hep-G2, HeLa and the normal human diploid cell line Lep-3. All five somatostatin receptor subtypes were modeled and docking was performed to determine the binding affinity of the analogs. The new peptides exhibited different concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on the tumor cell lines after 24 h of treatment. The compound 3B (Aib6) demonstrated the most pronounced antiproliferative effects on HepG-2 cells with the IC50 = 0.01349 nM. Docking confirmed that all compounds bind well to SST receptors with preference to sstr3 and sstr5, which is most probably the reason for the observed biological effects.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Non-isocyanate urethane linkage formation using l -lysine residues as amine sources

Abstract

Bio-based polyurethane materials are broadly applied in medicine as drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, their synthesis comprises the use of petroleum-based toxic amines, isocyanates and polyols, and their biocompatibility or functionalization is limited. Therefore, the use of lysine residues as amine sources to create non-isocyanate urethane (NIU) linkages was investigated. Therefore, a five-membered biscyclic carbonate (BCC) was firstly synthetized and reacted with a protected lysine, a tripeptide and a heptapeptide to confirm the urethane linkage formation with lysine moiety and to optimize reaction conditions. Afterwards, the reactions between BCC and a model protein, elastin-like protein (ELP), and β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) obtained from whey protein, respectively, were performed. The synthesized protein materials were structural, thermally and morphologically characterized to confirm the urethane linkage formation. The results demonstrate that using both simple and more complex source of amines (lysine), urethane linkages were effectively achieved. This pioneering approach opens the possibility of using proteins to develop non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) with tailored properties.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Branched-chain amino acids do not improve muscle recovery from resistance exercise in untrained young adults

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle recovery from resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adults. Twenty-four young adults (24.0 ± 4.3 years old) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 12 per group): a placebo-supplement group or a BCAA-supplement group. The groups were supplemented for a period of 5 days. On day 1 and 3, both groups underwent a RE session involving two lower body exercises (hack squat and leg press) and then were evaluated for muscle recovery on the 3 subsequent moments after the RE session [30 min (day 3), 24 h (day 4), and 48 h (day 5)]. The following indicators of muscle recovery were assessed: number of repetitions, rating of perceived exertion in the last RE session, muscle soreness and countermovement jump (CMJ) during recovery period (30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after RE session). Number of repetitions remained unchanged over time (time, P > 0.05), while the rating of perceived exertion increased (time, P < 0.05) over 3 sets, with no difference between groups (group × time, P > 0.05). Muscle soreness increased (time, P < 0.05) and jumping weight decreased (time, P < 0.05) at 30 min post-exercise and then progressively returned to baseline at 24 and 48 h post-exercise, with no difference between groups (group × time, P > 0.05). The results indicate that BCAA supplementation does not improve muscle recovery from RE in untrained young adults.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Involvement of non-coding RNAs and transcription factors in the induction of Transglutaminase isoforms by ATRA

Abstract

The multifunctional protein Transglutaminase type 2, is associated with cancer epithelial mesenchymal transition, invasiveness, stemness and drugs resistance. Several variant isoforms and non-coding RNAs are present in cancer and this report explored the expression of these transcripts of the TGM2 gene in cancer cell lines after induction with all-trans retinoic acid. The expression of truncated variants along with two long non-coding RNAs, was demonstrated. One of these is coded from the first intron and the Last Exon Variant is constituted by a sequence corresponding to the last three exons and the 3′UTR. Analysis of ChIP-seq data, from ENCODE project, highlighted factors interacting with intronic sequences, which could interfere with the progression of RNApol II at checkpoints, during the elongation process. Some relevant transcription factors, bound in an ATRA-dependent way, were found by RNA immunoprecipitation, notably GATA3 mainly enriched to Last Exon Variant non-coding RNA. The involvement of NMD in the regulation of the ratio among these transcripts was observed, as the prevalent recovering of Last Exon Variant to phUPF1-complexes, with decrease of the binding towards other selective targets. This study contributes to identify molecular mechanisms regulating the ratio among the variants and improves the knowledge about regulatory roles of the non-coding RNAs of the TGM2 gene.


Datum: 01.09.2019


Intracellular accumulation of amino acids increases synaptic potentials in rat hippocampal slices

Abstract

The application of high concentrations of taurine induces long-lasting potentiation of synaptic responses and axon excitability. This phenomenon seems to require the contribution of a transport system with a low affinity for taurine. The prototypic taurine transporter TauT (SLC6A6) was discarded by experimental evidence obtained in TauT-KO mice. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1; SLC36A1) which is a transport system with low affinity and high capacity for a great variety of amino acids including taurine, contributes to the taurine-induced synaptic potentiation. In rat hippocampal slices, the application of several amino acids (l- and d-alanine, l-glutamine, β-guanidinopropionic acid, glycine, l-histidine, l- and d-serine, sarcosine, l- and d-threonine) imitated the synaptic potentiation induced by taurine. The magnitude of the potentiation caused by some of these amino acids was even greater than that induced by taurine. By contrast, the application of other amino acids (l-arginine, betaine, l-leucine, l-methionine, l- and d-proline, and l-valine) did not induce potentiation. The behaviour of these different amino acids on synaptic potentiation is not compatible with a role of PAT1 in synaptic potentiation. There was a positive correlation between the accumulation of the different amino acids in the slice and the magnitude of synaptic potentiation induced by them. Some of the amino acids inducing synaptic potentiation, like taurine and l-threonine, also increased electrical resistance of the slice, whereas l-leucine did not modify this parameter. Modifications induced by either taurine or l-threonine in synaptic potentiation, slice resistance and amino acid accumulation were dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. These findings support the idea that the accumulation of amino acids throughout the action of transporters causes cell swelling enhancing the electrical resistance of the slice, which by itself could be sufficient to increase field synaptic potentials.


Datum: 01.09.2019


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.






© 1996 - 2019 Internetchemistry














I agree!

This site uses cookies. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies! Learn more ...