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Biogas Chemistry

The chemistry and biochemistry of biogas.


Biogas is produced by anaerobic fermentation of organic materials (biomass) such as compost, organic waste, sewage sludge, manure, plant residues etc. Biogas is particularly suitable for energy production in so-called biogas plants.

Chemically, biogas is a flammable gas. It is composed very differently depending on the substrate employed and technical workup.

As main constituents generally occur methane and carbon dioxide. Other components are nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. The interfering gases in the crude biogas (H2S, NH3 and CO2) are deposited prior to combustion.

The production of biogas is a microbial process that occurs in several stages. Starting materials are the carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the biomass. These are converted by the microorganisms through various metabolic pathways in biogas - in absence of oxygen (anoxic conditions; for example, anaerobic digestion).

The following list includes online available information on the chemistry and biochemistry of biogas.

Content, Topics

General Information

Biogas and Biofuels
Basic information

Biogas Composition
Different sources of production lead to different specific compositions

Lecture Notes, Tutorials

Anaerobic Digestion
Four phases of biogas production and other basics

Anaerobic Digestion of Agri-Food By-Products
Scientific basics

Anaerobic Waste Treatment Fundamentals
Chemistry and microbiology - Format: PDF

Biochemical and Thermochemical Conversion
... of biomass into energy and value added products - Format: PDF

Biochemical Conversion of Biomass
Biomethanation, fermentation etc. - Format: PDF

Biochemical Conversion of Biomass
Using enzymes, microbes, and catalysts to make fuels and chemicals - Format: PDF

Biochemical Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels
Pretreatment, detoxification, hydrolysis, fermentation - Format: PDF

Bio-Chemical Process
From waste to energy - Format: PDF

Bioenergy Conversion Systems
Lecture notes

Bioenergy Conversion Technologies
An overview

A significant contribution to decarbonising gas markets? - Format: PDF

Biogas - Green Energy
Process, design, energy supply, environment - Format: PDF

Biogas and Anaerobic Digestion
Fundamentals and applications. University of Florida - Format: PDF

Biogas Basics
Fun Facts - Format: PDF

Biogas Energy from Organic Wastes
Lecture notes

Biogas Portal
Encyclopedia with an extensive collection of information and texts

Biogas Production Process
Basics - Format: PDF

Biogas Purification and Utilization
Anaerobic biotechnology for bio-energy production - Format: PDF

Biogas Purification by Adsorption
... and novel washing systems - Format: PDF

Combustion and Heat Release Characteristics
... of biogas under hydrogen- and oxygen-enriched condition - Format: PDF

Domestic Biogas Compact Course
Technology and mass-dissemination experiences from asia - Format: PDF

Energy and Caron
... for green chemistry - Format: PDF

Methane Enrichment of Biogas
Article - Format: PDF

Microbiological Handbook
... for biogas plants - Format: PDF

Microbiological Process Optimization
... of biogas synthesis

Production of Biogas
... by anaerobic digestion - Format: PDF

Partial Information

Purification of Biogas
This review attempts to set out the procedures for removing hydrogen sulphide from biogas

Data and Databases


American Biogas Council
ABC is the first anaerobic digestion (AD) industry association in the United States that represents a full range of anaerobic digestion technologies and projects, including farm-based digesters, centralized facilities processing a variety of municipal and industrial organic waste streams, and existing digesters at municipal wastewater treatment plants

European Biogas Association
EBA was founded 2009 as a Belgian non-profit organisation aiming to promote sustainable biogas production and use in Europe

European Biomass Industry Association


Last update: 02.11.2022

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