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Isotopes of Yttrium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Yttrium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Yttrium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element yttrium are summarized under yttrium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 39 protons and, in the uncharged state, 39 electrons. The difference between each yttrium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Yttrium Isotopes

The chemical element yttrium, which is one of the rare earth metals, occurs in nature only in the form of the stable nuclide yttrium-89. All other isotopes are unstable and decay with half-lives of a few days and much less, emitting radioactive radiation. Some other short-lived yttrium isotopes are formed during uranium fission, for example in nuclear power plants or in nuclear explosions.

 

The yttrium isotope Y-90 is used as a radiotherapeutic agent in anti-inflammatory agents: ATC code V10AA01 (90yttrium citrate colloid), V10AA02 (90yttrium iron(III) hydroxide colloid) and V10AA03 (90yttrium silicate colloid). Yttrium-90 can be generated by neutron irradiation of yttrium-89 or strontium-90.

 

Isotope Table: Yttrium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
76Y397637Yttrium-7675.95869(32) u
[75.9372963 u]
{-38.48002 MeV}
77Y397738Yttrium-7776.95015(22) u
[76.9287563 u]
{-46.43498 MeV}
(5/2+)
78Y397839Yttrium-7877.94399(32) u
[77.9225963 u]
{-52.17298 MeV}
(0+)78Zr
78mY397839Yttrium-78m77.94399(32) u
[77.9225963 u]
{-52.17298 MeV}
(5+)
79Y397940Yttrium-7978.93793(8) u
[78.9165363 u]
{-57.81783 MeV}
(5/2+)79Zr
80Y398041Yttrium-8079.934355(7) u
[79.9129613 u]
{-61.14792 MeV}
(4-)80Zr
80m1Y398041Yttrium-80m179.934355(7) u
[79.9129613 u]
{-61.14792 MeV}
(1-)
80m2Y398041Yttrium-80m279.934355(7) u
[79.9129613 u]
{-61.14792 MeV}
(2+)
81Y398142Yttrium-8180.929454(6) u
[80.9080603 u]
{-65.71318 MeV}
(5/2+)81Zr
82Y398243Yttrium-8281.926930(6) u
[81.9055363 u]
{-68.06427 MeV}
1+82Zr
82m1Y398243Yttrium-82m181.926930(6) u
[81.9055363 u]
{-68.06427 MeV}
4-
82m2Y398243Yttrium-82m281.926930(6) u
[81.9055363 u]
{-68.06427 MeV}
6+
83Y398344Yttrium-8382.922484(20) u
[82.9010903 u]
{-72.20569 MeV}
9/2+83Zr
83mY398344Yttrium-83m82.922484(20) u
[82.9010903 u]
{-72.20569 MeV}
3/2-
84Y398445Yttrium-8483.920671(5) u
[83.8992773 u]
{-73.89449 MeV}
(6+)84Zr
84mY398445Yttrium-84m83.920671(5) u
[83.8992773 u]
{-73.89449 MeV}
1+
85Y398546Yttrium-8584.916433(20) u
[84.8950393 u]
{-77.84216 MeV}
(1/2)-6.2(5)85Zr
85m1Y398546Yttrium-85m184.916433(20) u
[84.8950393 u]
{-77.84216 MeV}
(9/2)+6.2(5)
85m2Y398546Yttrium-85m284.916433(20) u
[84.8950393 u]
{-77.84216 MeV}
(5/2)-+1.355(22)
86Y398647Yttrium-8685.914886(15) u
[85.8934923 u]
{-79.28318 MeV}
4-0.686Zr
86m1Y398647Yttrium-86m185.914886(15) u
[85.8934923 u]
{-79.28318 MeV}
(8+)4.8(3)
86m2Y398647Yttrium-86m285.914886(15) u
[85.8934923 u]
{-79.28318 MeV}
(7-)+3.78(12)
87Y398748Yttrium-8786.9108761(12) u
[86.8894824 u]
{-83.01838 MeV}
1/2-- 0.19(2)87Zr
87mY398748Yttrium-87m86.9108761(12) u
[86.8894824 u]
{-83.01838 MeV}
9/2++ 6.24(2)
88Y398849Yttrium-8887.9095013(16) u
[87.8881076 u]
{-84.299 MeV}
4-- 0.42(1)88Zr
88m1Y398849Yttrium-88m187.9095013(16) u
[87.8881076 u]
{-84.299 MeV}
1+
88m2Y398849Yttrium-88m287.9095013(16) u
[87.8881076 u]
{-84.299 MeV}
8++4.88(3)
89Y398950Yttrium-8988.90584(2) u
[88.8844463 u]
{-87.70948 MeV}
1/2--0.137298(5)89Zr
89Sr
89mY398950Yttrium-89m88.90584(2) u
[88.8844463 u]
{-87.70948 MeV}
9/2++ 6.37(4)
90Y399051Yttrium-9089.9071448(17) u
[89.8857511 u]
{-86.49406 MeV}
2--1.628(8)90Sr
90mY399051Yttrium-90m89.9071448(17) u
[89.8857511 u]
{-86.49406 MeV}
7++ 5.28(3)
91Y399152Yttrium-9190.9072981(20) u
[90.8859044 u]
{-86.35126 MeV}
1/2-0.1639(8)91Sr
91mY399152Yttrium-91m90.9072981(20) u
[90.8859044 u]
{-86.35126 MeV}
9/2+5.96(4)
92Y399253Yttrium-9291.908946(10) u
[91.8875523 u]
{-84.81625 MeV}
2-- 0.67(2)92Sr
93Y399354Yttrium-9392.909578(11) u
[92.8881843 u]
{-84.22755 MeV}
1/2-- 0.139(1)93Sr
93mY399354Yttrium-93m92.909578(11) u
[92.8881843 u]
{-84.22755 MeV}
(9/2)++ 6.04(3)
94Y399455Yttrium-9493.911592(7) u
[93.8901983 u]
{-82.35152 MeV}
2-- 0.24(2)94Sr
94mY399455Yttrium-94m93.911592(7) u
[93.8901983 u]
{-82.35152 MeV}
(5+)
95Y399556Yttrium-9594.912819(7) u
[94.8914253 u]
{-81.20858 MeV}
1/2-- 0.16(3)95Sr
96Y399657Yttrium-9695.915903(7) u
[95.8945093 u]
{-78.33585 MeV}
0-96Sr
96mY399657Yttrium-96m95.915903(7) u
[95.8945093 u]
{-78.33585 MeV}
8++6.57(3)
97Y399758Yttrium-9796.918280(7) u
[96.8968863 u]
{-76.12169 MeV}
(1/2-)- 0.12(1)97Sr
97m1Y399758Yttrium-97m196.918280(7) u
[96.8968863 u]
{-76.12169 MeV}
(9/2)++ 5.88(2)
97m2Y399758Yttrium-97m296.918280(7) u
[96.8968863 u]
{-76.12169 MeV}
(27/2-)+5.64(3)
98Y399859Yttrium-9897.922388(9) u
[97.9009943 u]
{-72.29511 MeV}
(0)-98Sr
98m1Y399859Yttrium-98m197.922388(9) u
[97.9009943 u]
{-72.29511 MeV}
(2)-+ 2.98(2)
98m2Y399859Yttrium-98m297.922388(9) u
[97.9009943 u]
{-72.29511 MeV}
(4,5)
98m3Y399859Yttrium-98m397.922388(9) u
[97.9009943 u]
{-72.29511 MeV}
(2-)
98m4Y399859Yttrium-98m497.922388(9) u
[97.9009943 u]
{-72.29511 MeV}
(8-)
99Y399960Yttrium-9998.924154(7) u
[98.9027603 u]
{-70.65009 MeV}
(5/2+)+3.18(2)99Sr
99mY399960Yttrium-99m98.924154(7) u
[98.9027603 u]
{-70.65009 MeV}
(17/2+)
100Y3910061Yttrium-10099.927721(12) u
[99.9063273 u]
{-67.32745 MeV}
1-, 2-+2.75(1)100Sr
100mY3910061Yttrium-100m99.927721(12) u
[99.9063273 u]
{-67.32745 MeV}
(3,4,5)
101Y3910162Yttrium-101100.930154(8) u
[100.9087603 u]
{-65.06113 MeV}
(5/2+)+ 3.22(2)101Sr
102Y3910263Yttrium-102101.934328(4) u
[101.9129343 u]
{-61.17307 MeV}
High
Low
102Sr
103Y3910364Yttrium-103102.937243(12) u
[102.9158493 u]
{-58.45777 MeV}
(5/2+)103Sr
104Y3910465Yttrium-104103.94196(43) u
[103.9205663 u]
{-54.06391 MeV}
104Sr
105Y3910566Yttrium-105104.94496(143) u
[104.9235663 u]
{-51.26943 MeV}
5/2+~105Sr
106Y3910667Yttrium-106105.95056(54) u
[105.9291663 u]
{-46.05306 MeV}
107Y3910768Yttrium-107106.95452(54) u
[106.9331263 u]
{-42.36435 MeV}
(5/2+)
108Y3910869Yttrium-108107.95996(64) u
[107.9385663 u]
{-37.29702 MeV}
109Y3910970Yttrium-109108.96436(75) u
[108.9429663 u]
{-33.19845 MeV}
(5/2+)

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Y-76200 nsp → 75Sr
EC/β+76Sr
?
?

15.77(30) MeV
AL
Y-7757 msp → 76Sr
EC/β+77Sr
EC, p
> 99.9 %
< 0.1 %
?

11.36(20) MeV
AL
Y-7853(8) msEC/β+78Sr
EC, p → 77Rb
~ 100 %
11.0(3) MeV
AL
Y-78m5.8(6) sEC/β+78Sr
EC, p → 77Rb
~ 100 %
?

+x keVAL
Y-7914.8(6) sEC/β+79Sr
EC, p → 78Rb
> 99.9 %
< 0.1 %
7.66(8) MeV
-
AL
Y-8030.1(5) sEC/β+80Sr
EC, p → 79Rb

9.163(7) MeV
AL
Y-80m14.8(3) sIso → 80Y
EC/β+80Sr
81(2) %
19(2) %

228.5(1) keVAL
Y-80m24.7(3) μsIso → 80Y100 %312.6(9) keVAL
Y-8170.4(10) sEC/β+81Sr100 %5.815(6) MeVAL
Y-828.30(20) sEC/β+82Sr100 %7.746(8) MeVAL
Y-82m1268(25) ns402.63(14) keVAL
Y-82m2147(7) ns507.50(13) keVAL
Y-837.08(8) minEC/β+83Sr100 %4.592(20) MeVAL
Y-83m2.85(2) minEC/β+83Sr
Iso 83Y
60(5) %
40(5) %
4.6 MeV
?
62.04(10) keVAL
Y-8439.5(8) minEC/β+84Sr100 %6.755(4) MeVAL
Y-84m4.6(2) sEC/β+84Sr100 %67.0(2) keVAL
Y-852.68(5) hEC/β+85Sr100 %3.261(19) MeVAL
Y-85m14.86(20) hEC/β+85Sr
Iso → 85Y
99.998 %
0.002 %

19.68(17) keVAL
Y-85m2178(6) ns266.18(10) keVAL
Y-8614.74(2) hEC/β+86Sr100 %5.240(14) MeVAL
Y-86m147.4(4) minIso → 86Y
EC/β+86Sr
99.31(4) %
0.69(4) %

218.21(9) keVAL
Y-86m2127(4) ns302.18(9) keVAL
Y-8779.8(3) hEC/β+87Sr100 %1.8617(11) MeVAL
Y-87m13.37(3) hIso → 87Y
EC/β+87Sr
98.43(11) %
1.57(11) %

380.82(7) keVAL
Y-88106.626(21) dEC/β+88Sr100 %3.6226(15) MeVAL
Y-88m10.301(3) msIso → 88Y100 %392.86(9) keVAL
Y-88m213.98(17) msIso → 88Y100 %674.55(4) keVAL
Y-89stableAL
Y-89m15.663(5) sIso → 89Y100 %0.909 MeV908.97(3) keVAL
Y-9064.00(21) hβ-90Zr100 %2.2785(16) MeVAL
Y-90m3.19(6) hIso → 90Y
β-90Zr
99.9982(2) %
0.0018(2) %

681.67(10) keVAL
Y-9158.51(6) dβ-91Zr100 %1.5443(18) MeVAL
Y-91m49.71(4) minIso → 91Y
β-91Zr
98.5 %
1.5 %
0.555 MeV
?
555.58(5) keVAL
Y-923.54(1) hβ-92Zr100 %3.643(9) MeVAL
Y-9310.18(8) hβ-93Zr100 %2.895(10) MeVAL
Y-93m0.82(4) sIso → 93Y100 %0.759 MeV758.719(21) keVAL
Y-9418.7(1) minβ-94Zr100 %4.918(6) MeVAL
Y-94m1.35(2) μsIso → 94Y100 %1202.3 keV
Y-9510.3(1) minβ-95Zr100 %4.451(7) MeVAL
Y-965.34(5) sβ-96Zr100 %7.103(6) MeVAL
Y-96m9.6(2) sβ-96Zr100 %1140(30) keVAL
Y-973.75(3) sβ-97Zr
β-, n → 96Zr
99.95 %
0.055(4) %
6.69 MeV
?
AL
Y-97m11.17(3) sβ-97Zr
Iso → 97Y
β-, n → 96Zr
> 99.3 %
< 0.7 %
< 0.08 %
7.4 MeV
?
667.52(23) keVAL
Y-97m2142(8) msIso → 97Y
β-97Zr
94.8(9) %
5.2(9) %

3522.6(4) keVAL
Y-98548(2) msβ-98Zr
β-, n → 97Zr
99.669 %
0.331(24) %
8.992(12) MeV
2.577(8) MeV
AL
Y-98m10.62(8) μs170.74(6) keVAL
Y-98m22.0(2) sβ-98Zr
Iso → 98Y
β-, n → 97Zr
86.6 %
10 %
3.4 %
9.8 MeV

410(30) keVAL
Y-98m37.6(4) μs496.19(15) keVAL
Y-98m40.83(10) μs1181.1(4) keVAL
Y-991.484(7) sβ-99Zr
β-, n → 98Zr
98.3 %
1.77(19) %
7.57 MeV
?
AL
Y-99m8.0(5) μsIso → 99Y100 %2141.65(19) keVAL
Y-100735(7) msβ-100Zr
β-, n → 99Zr
99.08 %
0.92(8) %
9.050(14) MeV
2.222(15) MeV
AL
Y-100m0.94(3) sβ-100Zr100 %145(15) keVAL
Y-1010.45(2) sβ-101Zr
β-, n → 100Zr
98.06 %
1.94(18) %
8.105(11) MeV
3.245(11) MeV
AL
Y-102High: 0.36(4) s
Low: 0.298(9) s
β-102Zr
β-, n → 101Zr
95.1 %
4.9(12) %
10.415(10) MeV
3.921(9) MeV
+x/+yAL
Y-1030.23(2) sβ-103Zr
β-, n → 102Zr
92 %
8(3) %
9.358(15) MeV
5.059(14) MeV
AL
Y-104197(4) msβ-104Zr
β-, n → 103Zr
β-, 2n → 102Zr
66 %
34(10) %
?
11.66(40) MeV
5.68(40) MeV
AL
Y-10595(9) msβ-105Zr
β-, n → 104Zr
β-, 2n → 103Zr
~18 %
< 82 %
?
10.19 MeV
6.38 MeV
AL
Y-10679 msβ-106Zr
β-, n → 105Zr
β-, 2n → 194Zr

?
?
12.50(66) MeV
7.34(50) MeV
AL
Y-10733.5(30) msβ-107Zr
β-, n → 106Zr
β-, 2n → 105Zr


12.0 MeV
8.11 MeV
AL
Y-10830(5) msβ-108Zr
β-, n → 107Zr
β-, 2n → 106Zr

?
?
14.06(72) MeV
9.01 MeV
AL
Y-10925(5) msβ-109Zr100 %12.99(86) MeVAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Yttrium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Yttrium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Yttrium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Yttrium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
89Y
100 %
1/2-
-0,137298(5)- 1.31552,09490,00012
0,0492

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Yttrium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Y-86105 Bq10 Bq/g14.7 h
Y-86m107 Bq100 Bq/g48.0 min
Y-87+106 Bq10 Bq/g0,09 TBqSr-87m79.8 h
Y-88106 Bq10 Bq/g0,03 TBq1 Bq cm-2106.6 d
Y-90105 Bq1000 Bq/g5 TBq100 Bq cm-264.1 h
Y-91106 Bq100 Bq/g8 TBq100 Bq cm-258.5 d
Y-91m106 Bq100 Bq/g0,1 TBq1 Bq cm-249.7 min
Y-92105 Bq100 Bq/g0,2 TBq10 Bq cm-23.5 h
Y-93105 Bq100 Bq/g0,6 TBq10 Bq cm-210.2 h
Y-94105 Bq10 Bq/g18.7 min
Y-95105 Bq10 Bq/g10.3 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Yttrium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Yttrium: NMR properties - 89Y-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - A. Nystrom, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.002.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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