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Isotopes of Terbium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Terbium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Terbium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element terbium are summarized under terbium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 65 protons and, in the uncharged state, 65 electrons. The difference between the individual terbium isotopes is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

Terbium is a chemical element from the group of rare earth metals and lanthanides. The natural earthly terbium consists of only one stable nuclide, terbium-159.

So far, more than 30 other terbium isotopes and several nuclear isomers have been artificially produced and characterized, all of which are unstable.

The research deals with the beta emitter terbium-161 as a radiotherapeutic: The nuclide, which decays with a half-life of approx. 7 days, could be produced in the purity required for clinical use by neutron irradiation of gadolinium-160.

 

Isotope Table: Terbium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
135Tb6513570Terbium-135134.96476(43) u
[134.9291053 u]
{-32.82585 MeV}
(7/2-)
136Tb6513671Terbium-136
137Tb6513772Terbium-137
138Tb6513873Terbium-138137.95312(32) u
[137.9174653 u]
{-43.66844 MeV}
139Tb6513974Terbium-139138.94833(32) u
[138.9126753 u]
{-48.13029 MeV}
139Dy
140Tb6514075Terbium-140139.94581(86) u
[139.9101553 u]
{-50.47766 MeV}
(7+)
141Tb6514176Terbium-141140.94145(11) u
[140.9057953 u]
{-54.53897 MeV}
(5/2-)141Dy
141mTb6514176Terbium-141m140.94145(11) u
[140.9057953 u]
{-54.53897 MeV}
142Tb6514277Terbium-142141.93928(75) u
[141.9036253 u]
{-56.56032 MeV}
1+142Dy
142m1Tb6514277Terbium-142m1141.93928(75) u
[141.9036253 u]
{-56.56032 MeV}
5-
142m2Tb6514277Terbium-142m2141.93928(75) u
[141.9036253 u]
{-56.56032 MeV}
8+
143Tb6514378Terbium-143142.93514(5) u
[142.8994853 u]
{-60.4167 MeV}
(11/2-)
144Tb6514479Terbium-144143.93304(3) u
[143.8973853 u]
{-62.37284 MeV}
1+144Dy
144m1Tb6514479Terbium-144m1143.93304(3) u
[143.8973853 u]
{-62.37284 MeV}
(6-)
144m2Tb6514479Terbium-144m2143.93304(3) u
[143.8973853 u]
{-62.37284 MeV}
(8-)
144m3Tb6514479Terbium-144m3143.93304(3) u
[143.8973853 u]
{-62.37284 MeV}
(9+)
144m4Tb6514479Terbium-144m4143.93304(3) u
[143.8973853 u]
{-62.37284 MeV}
(10+)
145Tb6514580Terbium-145144.92873(12) u
[144.8930753 u]
{-66.38758 MeV}
(3/2+)145Dy
145mTb6514580Terbium-145m144.92873(12) u
[144.8930753 u]
{-66.38758 MeV}
(11/2-)
146Tb6514681Terbium-146145.92725(5) u
[145.8915953 u]
{-67.76619 MeV}
1+146Dy
146m1Tb6514681Terbium-146m1145.92725(5) u
[145.8915953 u]
{-67.76619 MeV}
5-
146m2Tb6514681Terbium-146m2145.92725(5) u
[145.8915953 u]
{-67.76619 MeV}
10+
147Tb6514782Terbium-147146.924055(9) u
[146.8884003 u]
{-70.74231 MeV}
(1/2+)+ 1.70(5)147Dy
151Ho
147mTb6514782Terbium-147m146.924055(9) u
[146.8884003 u]
{-70.74231 MeV}
(11/2-)
148Tb6514883Terbium-148147.924275(13) u
[147.8886203 u]
{-70.53738 MeV}
2--1.75(2)148Dy
152Ho
148mTb6514883Terbium-148m147.924275(13) u
[147.8886203 u]
{-70.53738 MeV}
(9)+
149Tb6514984Terbium-149148.923254(4) u
[148.8875993 u]
{-71.48844 MeV}
1/2++ 1.35(2)149Dy
153Ho
149mTb6514984Terbium-149m148.923254(4) u
[148.8875993 u]
{-71.48844 MeV}
11/2-
150Tb6515085Terbium-150149.923665(8) u
[149.8880103 u]
{-71.10559 MeV}
(2)-150Dy
154Ho
150mTb6515085Terbium-150m149.923665(8) u
[149.8880103 u]
{-71.10559 MeV}
9+
151Tb6515186Terbium-151150.923109(4) u
[150.8874543 u]
{-71.62351 MeV}
1/2(+)0.919(6)151Dy
151mTb6515186Terbium-151m150.923109(4) u
[150.8874543 u]
{-71.62351 MeV}
(11/2-)
152Tb6515287Terbium-152151.92408(4) u
[151.8884253 u]
{-70.71902 MeV}
2-- 0.58(2)152Dy
152mTb6515287Terbium-152m151.92408(4) u
[151.8884253 u]
{-70.71902 MeV}
8+
153Tb6515388Terbium-153152.923442(4) u
[152.8877873 u]
{-71.31332 MeV}
5/2++ 3.44(2)153Dy
153mTb6515388Terbium-153m152.923442(4) u
[152.8877873 u]
{-71.31332 MeV}
11/2-
154Tb6515489Terbium-154153.92468(5) u
[153.8890253 u]
{-70.16013 MeV}
0
154m1Tb6515489Terbium-154m1153.92468(5) u
[153.8890253 u]
{-70.16013 MeV}
3-+1.6(2)
154m2Tb6515489Terbium-154m2153.92468(5) u
[153.8890253 u]
{-70.16013 MeV}
7-0.9(3)
155Tb6515590Terbium-155154.923510(11) u
[154.8878553 u]
{-71.24998 MeV}
3/2++ 2.01(2)155Dy
156Tb6515691Terbium-156155.924754(4) u
[155.8890993 u]
{-70.0912 MeV}
3-1.41(18)
156m1Tb6515691Terbium-156m1155.924754(4) u
[155.8890993 u]
{-70.0912 MeV}
(7-)
156m2Tb6515691Terbium-156m2155.924754(4) u
[155.8890993 u]
{-70.0912 MeV}
(0+)
157Tb6515792Terbium-157156.9240323(13) u
[156.8883776 u]
{-70.76346 MeV}
3/2++ 2.01(2)157Dy
158Tb6515893Terbium-158157.9254202(15) u
[157.8897655 u]
{-69.47064 MeV}
3-+ 1.758(7)
158m1Tb6515893Terbium-158m1157.9254202(15) u
[157.8897655 u]
{-69.47064 MeV}
0-
158m2Tb6515893Terbium-158m2157.9254202(15) u
[157.8897655 u]
{-69.47064 MeV}
7-
159Tb6515994Terbium-159158.92535(2) u
[158.8896953 u]
{-69.53603 MeV}
3/2++ 2.014(4)159Dy
159Gd
160Tb6516095Terbium-160159.9271748(14) u
[159.8915201 u]
{-67.83624 MeV}
3-+ 1.790(7)
161Tb6516196Terbium-161160.9275770(14) u
[160.8919223 u]
{-67.46159 MeV}
3/2+2.2(1)161Gd
162Tb6516297Terbium-162161.92949(4) u
[161.8938353 u]
{-65.67964 MeV}
1-162Gd
163Tb6516398Terbium-163162.930653(4) u
[162.8949983 u]
{-64.59631 MeV}
3/2+163Gd
164Tb6516499Terbium-164163.93336(11) u
[163.8977053 u]
{-62.07476 MeV}
(5+)
165Tb65165100Terbium-165164.93498(11) u
[164.8993253 u]
{-60.56574 MeV}
(3/2+)
166Tb65166101Terbium-166165.93786(8) u
[165.9022053 u]
{-57.88304 MeV}
(2-)
167Tb65167102Terbium-167166.93996(21) u
[166.9043053 u]
{-55.9269 MeV}
(3/2+)
168Tb65168103Terbium-168167.94340(32) u
[167.9077453 u]
{-52.72256 MeV}
(4-)
169Tb65169104Terbium-169168.94597(32) u
[168.9103153 u]
{-50.32862 MeV}
(3/2+)
170Tb65170105Terbium-170169.94984(43) u
[169.9141853 u]
{-46.72374 MeV}
171Tb65171106Terbium-171170.95273(54) u
[170.9170753 u]
{-44.03172 MeV}
172Tb65172107Terbium-172171.95722(54) u
[171.9215653 u]
{-39.84931 MeV}
(6+)

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Tb-1350.94 msp → 134Gd
EC/β+135Gd
ca. 100 %
?
11.56(57) MeV
AL
Tb-136- ungelistet -AL
Tb-137- ungelistet -AL
Tb-138200 nsEC/β+138Gd100 %12.13(36) MeVAL
Tb-1391.6(2) sEC/β+139Gd
EC, p → 138Eu
p → 138Gd
> 0 %
?
?
9.50(36) MeV

AL
Tb-1402.29(15) s&spsilon; → 140Gd
EC, p → 139Eu
99.74 %
0.26 %
11.30(80) MeV
AL
Tb-1413.5(2) sEC/β+141Gd100 %8.68(11) MeVAL
Tb-141m7.9(6) sEC/β+141Gd100 %+x keVAL
Tb-142597(17) msEC/β+142Gd
β+, p → 141Eu
> 99 %
<< 1%
10.40(70) MeV
AL
Tb-142m1303(17) msIso → 142Tb100 %279.7(4) keVAL
Tb-142m226(1) μsIso → 142Tb100 %652.1(6) keVAL
Tb-14312(1) sEC/β+143Gd100 %7.81(21) MeVAL
Tb-1441 sEC/β+144Gd100 %9.39(4) MeVAL
Tb-144m14.25(15) sEC/β+144Gd
Iso → 144Tb
34 %
66 %

396.9(5) keVAL
Tb-144m22.8(3) μs476.2(5) keVAL
Tb-144m30.67(6) μs517.1(5) keVAL
Tb-144m4300 ns544.5(6) keVAL
Tb-145AL
Tb-145m30.9(6) sEC/β+145Gd100 %AL
Tb-1468(4) sEC/β+146Gd100 %8.32(5) MeVAL
Tb-146m124.1(5) sEC/β+146Gd100 %0.0 + X keVAL
Tb-146m21.20(3) msIso → 146Tb100 %779.6(3)+X keVAL
Tb-1471.64(3) hEC/β+147Gd100 %4.614(8) MeVAL
Tb-147m1.83(6) minEC/β+147Gd100 %50.6(9) keVAL
Tb-14860(1) minEC/β+148Gd100 %5.732(13) MeVAL
Tb-148m2.20(5) minEC/β+148Gd100 %90.1(3) keVAL
Tb-1494.118(25) hEC/β+149Gd
α → 145Eu
83.3(17) %
16.7(17) %
3.638(5) MeV
4.0779(22) MeV
AL
Tb-149m4.16(4) minEC/β+149Gd
α → 145Eu
99.978(3) %
0.022(3) %

35.78(13) keVAL
Tb-1503.48(16) hEC/β+150Gd
α → 146Eu
> 99 %
0.05 %
4.658(10) MeV
3.587(5) MeV
AL
Tb-150m5.8(2) minEC/β+150Gd100 %474(51) keVAL
Tb-15117.609(14) hEC/β+151Gd
α → 147Eu
99.9905(15) %
0.0095(13) %
2.565(5) MeV
3.496(4) MeV
AL
Tb-151m25(3) sIso → 151Tb
EC/β+151Gd
93.4(20) %
6.6(20) %

99.53(5) keVAL
Tb-15217.5(1) hEC/β+152Gd
α → 148Eu
> 99 %
<< 1 %
3.99(4) MeV
3.16(4) MeV
AL
Tb-152m4.2(1) minEC/β+152Gd
Iso → 152Tb
21.1(6) %
78.9(6) %

501.74(19) keVAL
Tb-1532.34(1) dEC/β+153Gd100 %1.569(4) MeVAL
Tb-153m186(4) μsIso → 153Tb100 %163.175(5) keVAL
Tb-15421.5(4) hEC/β+154Gd
β-154Dy
99.9 %
0.1 %
3.55(5) MeV
0.24(5) MeV
AL
Tb-154m19.4(4) hEC/β+154Gd
β-154Dy
Iso → 154Tb
78.2(7) %
< 0.1 %
21.8(7) %


+x keVAL
Tb-154m222.7(5) hEC/β+154Gd
Iso → 154Tb
98.2(6) %
1.8(6) %

AL
Tb-1555.32(6) dEC → 155Gd100 %0.82(1) MeVAL
Tb-1565.35(10) dEC/β+156Gd100 %2.444(4) MeVAL
Tb-156m124.4(10) hIso → 156Tb100 %49.630+x keVAL
Tb-156m25.3(2) hEC/β+156Gd
Iso → 156Tb
> 0 %
< 100 %

88.4 keVAL
Tb-15771(7) aEC → 157Gd100 %0.060(17) MeVAL
Tb-158180(11) aEC/β+158Gd
β-158Dy
83.4(7) %
16.6(7) %
1.2189(18) MeV
0.9367(25) MeV
AL
Tb-158m110.70(17) sIso → 158Tb
β-158Dy
β+158Gd
99.39 %
0.6 %
0.01 %


110.3(12) keVAL
Tb-158m20.40(4) msIso → 158Tb100 %388.39(11) keVAL
Tb-159stableAL
Tb-16072.3(2) dβ-160Dy100 %1.8365(12) MeVAL
Tb-1616.89(2) dβ-161Dy100 %0.5942(13) MeVAL
Tb-1627.60(15) minβ-162Dy100 %2.51(4) MeVAL
Tb-16319.5(3) minβ-163Dy100 %1.785(4) MeVAL
Tb-1643.0(1) minβ-164Dy100 %3.89(10) MeVAL
Tb-1652.11(10) minβ-165Dy100 %3.05(10) MeVAL
Tb-16625.1(21) sβ-166Dy100 %4.70(7) MeVAL
Tb-16719.4(27) sβ-167Dy100 %4.0(2) MeVAL
Tb-1688.2(13) sβ-168Dy100 %5.84(33) MeVAL
Tb-1695.1(3) sβ-169Dy
β-, n → 168Dy
100 %
?
5.27(42) MeV
0.16(33) MeV
AL
Tb-1700.96(8) sβ-170Dy
β-, n → 169Dy
100 %
?
6.94(45) MeV
0.8(5) MeV
AL
Tb-1711.24 sβ-171Dy
β-, n → 170Dy
100 %
?
6.16(58) MeV
1.56(54) MeV
AL
Tb-1720.76(19) sβ-172Dy
β-, n → 171Dy
100 %
?
8.16(58) MeV
2.27(58) MeV

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Terbium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Terbium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Terbium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Terbium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
159Tb
100 %
3/2+
+ 2,014(4)6,4306+ 143,2(8)10,230,06945
1,2019

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Terbium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Tb-147106 Bq10 Bq/g1.7 h
Tb-149106 Bq10 Bq/g4.1 h
Tb-150106 Bq10 Bq/g3.5 h
Tb-151106 Bq10 Bq/g17.6 h
Tb-153107 Bq100 Bq/g2.3 d
Tb-154106 Bq10 Bq/g21.5 h
Tb-155107 Bq100 Bq/g5.3 d
Tb-156106 Bq10 Bq/g5.2 d
Tb-156m107 Bq1000 Bq/g5.3 h
Tb-157107 Bq100 Bq/g20 TBq99.0 a
Tb-158106 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,09 TBq180.0 a
Tb-160106 Bq1 Bq/g0,06 TBq1 Bq cm-272.3 d
Tb-161106 Bq1000 Bq/g6.9 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Terbium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Terbium: NMR properties - 159Tb-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - Silvia Lehenberger et al.:
The low-energy β- and electron emitter 161Tb as an alternative to 177Lu for targeted radionuclide therapy.
In: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, (2011), DOI 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2011.02.007.

[10] - E. May, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of samarium, europium, Dysprosium, and Dysprosium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.01.007.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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