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Isotopes of Scandium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Scandium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Scandium isotopes

The chemical element scandium, which is one of the rare earth metals, occurs in nature only in the form of its stable isotope Sc-45. All other Sc isotopes are unstable and decay with half-lives of a few days (Sc-46, Sc-47) or much less.

About 100 core isomers of scandium are known, of which Sc-44m with a Half-life of 58.6 hours is the most long-lived.

The standard atomic mass of scandium is given as 44.955908(5) u.

 

Isotope Table: Scandium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
36Sc213615Scandium-3636.01492(54) u
[36.0034 u]
{13.89789 MeV}
37Sc213716Scandium-3737.00305(32) u
[36.99153 u]
{2.84106 MeV}
7/2
38Sc213817Scandium-3837.99544(21) u
[37.98392 u]
{-4.24761 MeV}
(2-)
38mSc213817Scandium-38m37.99544(21) u
[37.98392 u]
{-4.24761 MeV}
39Sc213918Scandium-3938.984790(26) u
[38.97327 u]
{-14.16802 MeV}
(7/2-)43Cr
40Sc214019Scandium-4039.977967(3) u
[39.966447 u]
{-20.52361 MeV}
4-40Ti
41Sc214120Scandium-4140.96925110(9) u
[40.9577311 u]
{-28.64242 MeV}
7/2-+5.4283(14)41Ti
43Cr
42Sc214221Scandium-4241.96551652(18) u
[41.9539966 u]
{-32.12115 MeV}
0+42Ti
42mSc214221Scandium-42m41.96551652(18) u
[41.9539966 u]
{-32.12115 MeV}
7+
43Sc214322Scandium-4342.9611505(20) u
[42.9496305 u]
{-36.18808 MeV}
7/2-+ 4.526(10)43Ti
43m1Sc214322Scandium-43m142.9611505(20) u
[42.9496305 u]
{-36.18808 MeV}
3/2++ 0.348(6)
43m2Sc214322Scandium-43m242.9611505(20) u
[42.9496305 u]
{-36.18808 MeV}
(19/2)-+ 3.122(7)
44Sc214423Scandium-4443.9594029(19) u
[43.9478829 u]
{-37.81596 MeV}
2++ 2.498(5)44Ti
44m1Sc214423Scandium-44m143.9594029(19) u
[43.9478829 u]
{-37.81596 MeV}
1-+ 0.342(6)
44m2Sc214423Scandium-44m243.9594029(19) u
[43.9478829 u]
{-37.81596 MeV}
0-
44m3Sc214423Scandium-44m343.9594029(19) u
[43.9478829 u]
{-37.81596 MeV}
6++ 3.831(12)
45Sc214524Scandium-4544.955908(5) u
[44.944388 u]
{-41.07143 MeV}
7/2-+4.75400(8)45Ca
45Ti
45mSc214524Scandium-45m44.9559119(9) u
[44.9443919 u]
{-41.0678 MeV}
3/2++ 0.368(5)
46Sc214625Scandium-4645.9551719(9) u
[45.9436519 u]
{-41.75711 MeV}
4++3.040(8)
46m1Sc214625Scandium-46m145.9551719(9) u
[45.9436519 u]
{-41.75711 MeV}
6+
46m2Sc214625Scandium-46m245.9551719(9) u
[45.9436519 u]
{-41.75711 MeV}
1-
47Sc214726Scandium-4746.9524075(22) u
[46.9408875 u]
{-44.33213 MeV}
7/2-+ 5.34(2)47Ca
47mSc214726Scandium-47m46.9524075(22) u
[46.9408875 u]
{-44.33213 MeV}
(3/2)+0.35(5)
48Sc214827Scandium-4847.952231(6) u
[47.940711 u]
{-44.49654 MeV}
6+3.737(12)
49Sc214928Scandium-4948.950024(4) u
[48.938504 u]
{-46.55234 MeV}
7/2-(+)5.61(3)49Ca
50Sc215029Scandium-5049.952176(16) u
[49.940656 u]
{-44.54777 MeV}
5+50Ca
50mSc215029Scandium-50m49.952176(16) u
[49.940656 u]
{-44.54777 MeV}
2+
51Sc215130Scandium-5150.953592(21) u
[50.942072 u]
{-43.22877 MeV}
(7/2)-51Ca
52Sc215231Scandium-5251.95658(9) u
[51.94506 u]
{-40.44547 MeV}
3(+)52Ca
53Sc215332Scandium-5352.95823(10) u
[52.94671 u]
{-38.9085 MeV}
(7/2-)53Ca
54Sc215433Scandium-5453.96362(29) u
[53.9521 u]
{-33.88775 MeV}
(3)+54Ca
54mSc215433Scandium-54m53.96362(29) u
[53.9521 u]
{-33.88775 MeV}
(4,5)+
55Sc215534Scandium-5554.96762(49) u
[54.9561 u]
{-30.16178 MeV}
(7/2-)55Ca
56Sc215635Scandium-5655.97332(63) u
[55.9618 u]
{-24.85226 MeV}
(1+)56Ca
57Sc215736Scandium-5756.97779(75) u
[56.96627 u]
{-20.68848 MeV}
7/2-~57Ca
58Sc215837Scandium-5857.98403(43) u
[57.97251 u]
{-14.87596 MeV}
(3+)
59Sc215938Scandium-5958.98922(97) u
[58.9777 u]
{-10.04151 MeV}
7/2-
60Sc216039Scandium-6059.99571(97) u
[59.98419 u]
{-3.99611 MeV}
3+
61Sc216140Scandium-6161.00100(64) u
[60.98948 u]
{0.93149 MeV}
7/2

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Sc-36p → 35CaAL
Sc-37p → 36CaAL
Sc-38300 nsp → 37Ca?0.900 MeVAL
Sc-38mp → 37CaAL
Sc-39300 nsp → 38Ca100 %AL
Sc-40182.3(7) msEC/β+40Ca
EC, p 39K
EC, α → 36Ar
99.54 %
0.44 %
0.017 %
14.320(28) MeV
5.991 MeV
7.279 MeV
AL
Sc-41596.3(17) msEC/β+41Ca6.49548(16) MeVAL
Sc-42680.79(28) msEC β+42Ca100 %6.42609(22) MeVAL
Sc-42m61.7(4) sEC β+42Ca100 %7.042 MeV616.28(6) keVAL
Sc-433.891(12) hEC/β+43Ca100 %2.2207(19) MeVAL
Sc-43m1438(7) μsIso → 43Sc100 %151.79(8) keVAL
Sc-43m2472(4) ns3123.73(15) keVAL
Sc-443.97(4) hEC β+44Ca100 %3.6527(18) MeVAL
Sc-44m1154.8(8) ns67.8679(14) keVAL
Sc-44m251.0(3) μs146.1914(20) keVAL
Sc-44m358.61(10) hIso → 44Sc
EC β+44Ca
98.80(7) %
1.20(7) %
0.271 MeV
3.924 MeV
271.24(1) keVAL
Sc-45stableAL
Sc-45m318(7) msIso → 45Sc12.40(5) keVAL
Sc-4683.79(4) dβ-46Ti100 %2.3666(7) MeVAL
Sc-46m19.4(8) μs52.011(1) keVAL
Sc-46m218.75(4) sIso → 46Sc100 %142.528(7) keVAL
Sc-473.3492(6) dβ-47Ti100 %0.6008(19) MeVAL
Sc-47m272(8) ns766.83(9) keVAL
Sc-4843.67(9) hβ-48Ti100 %3.989(5) MeVAL
Sc-4957.2(2) minβ-49Ti100 %2.0025(27) MeVAL
Sc-50102.5(5) sβ-50Ti100 %6.884(15) MeVAL
Sc-50m0.35(4) sIso → 50Sc
β-50Ti
99.5(5) %
< 1.0 %

6.89 MeV
256.895(10) keVAL
Sc-5112.4(1) sβ-51Ti
β-, n → 50Ti
100 %
?
6.504(20) MeV
0.132(20) MeV
AL
Sc-528.2(2) sβ-52Ti100 %9.03(8) MeVAL
Sc-532.6(4) sβ-53Ti
β-, n → 52Ti
> 99.9 %
< 0.1 %
7.92(14) MeV
2.49(9) MeV
AL
Sc-54526(15) msβ-54Ti
β-, n → 53Ti
85(9) %
16(9) %
11.73(28) MeV
4.87(29) MeV
AL
Sc-54m2.77(2) μsIso → 54Sc100 %110.0(10) keVAL
Sc-55105(6) msβ-55Ti
β-, n → 54Ti
> 99.9 %
< 0.1 %
11.51(48) MeV
7.39(46) MeV
AL
Sc-5626(6) msβ-56Ti
β-, n → 55Ti
100 %
?
14.47(60) MeV
8.74(61) MeV
AL
Sc-5713(4) msβ-57Ti100 %12.92(133) MeVAL
Sc-5812(5) msβ-58Ti100 %16.23(45) MeVAL
Sc-5910 msβ-59Ti
β-, n → 58Ti
100 %
?
15.21(45) MeV
12.74(45) MeV
AL
Sc-600.003 sAL
Sc-61620 nsβ-61Ti
β-, n → 60Ti
β-, 2n → 59Ti
?
?
?
17.28(72) MeV

AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Scandium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Scandium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Scandium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Scandium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
45Sc
100 %
7/2-
+4,75400(8)6,5081- 22,0(2)10,35910,30244
5,1094

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Scandium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Sc-43106 Bq10 Bq/g3.9 h
Sc-44105 Bq10 Bq/g0,03 TBq4.0 h
Sc-44m+107 Bq1 Bg/g2.4 d
Sc-46106 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,03 TBq1 Bq/cm283.8 d
Sc-47106 Bq100 Bq/g0,7 TBq10 Bq cm-23.4 d
Sc-48105 Bq1 Bq/g0,02 TBq1 Bq cm-243.7 h
Sc-49105 Bq103 Bq/g57.2 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Scandium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Scandium: NMR properties - 45Sc-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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