About   |   More   |   Search

Isotopes of Ruthenium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Ruthenium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Ruthenium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element ruthenium are summarized under ruthenium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 44 protons and, in the uncharged state, 44 electrons. The difference between each ruthenium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Ruthenium Isotopes

Natural ruthenium deposits consist of a mixture of seven different stable isotopes:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Ruthenium
Isotopic mixture
101,07 u100 %
Isotope 96Ru95,907590(3) u5,54(14) %stable0+
Isotope 98Ru97,90529(5) u1,87(3) %stable0+
Isotope 99Ru98,905934(7) u12,76(14) %stable5/2+
Isotope 100Ru99,904214(7) u12,60(7) %stable0+
Isotope 101Ru100,905577(8) u17,06(2) %stable5/2+
Isotope 102Ru101,904344(8) u31,55(14) %stable0+
Isotope 104Ru103,90543(2) u18,62(27) %stable0+

 

All other ruthenium nuclides known and characterized to date are unstable and have no significance for technical applications.

 

Isotope Table: Ruthenium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
85Ru448541Ruthenium-8584.96677(54) u
[84.9426337 u]
{-30.95355 MeV}
86Ru448642Ruthenium-8685.95730(43) u
[85.9331637 u]
{-39.77479 MeV}
0+
87Ru448743Ruthenium-8786.94918(64) u
[86.9250437 u]
{-47.33853 MeV}
88Ru448844Ruthenium-8887.94166(32) u
[87.9175237 u]
{-54.34336 MeV}
0+
89Ru448945Ruthenium-8988.93745(32) u
[88.9133137 u]
{-58.26495 MeV}
(9/2+)
90Ru449046Ruthenium-9089.930344(4) u
[89.9062077 u]
{-64.88415 MeV}
0+
91Ru449147Ruthenium-9190.9267415(24) u
[90.9026052 u]
{-68.23985 MeV}
(9/2+)
91mRu449147Ruthenium-91m90.9267415(24) u
[90.9026052 u]
{-68.23985 MeV}
(1/2-)
92Ru449248Ruthenium-9291.9202344(24) u
[91.8960981 u]
{-74.30118 MeV}
0+92Rh
93Pd
93Ru449349Ruthenium-9392.9171044(22) u
[92.8929681 u]
{-77.21675 MeV}
(9/2)+
93m1Ru449349Ruthenium-93m192.9171044(22) u
[92.8929681 u]
{-77.21675 MeV}
(1/2)-
93m2Ru449349Ruthenium-93m292.9171044(22) u
[92.8929681 u]
{-77.21675 MeV}
(21/2)++8.970(21)
94Ru449450Ruthenium-9493.911343(3) u
[93.8872067 u]
{-82.58346 MeV}
0+94Rh
95Pd
94mRu449450Ruthenium-94m93.911343(3) u
[93.8872067 u]
{-82.58346 MeV}
8+
95Ru449551Ruthenium-9594.910404(10) u
[94.8862677 u]
{-83.45814 MeV}
5/2+0.861(7)95Rh
96Ru449652Ruthenium-9695.907590(3) u
[95.8834537 u]
{-86.07936 MeV}
0+96Rh
97Ru449753Ruthenium-9796.907546(3) u
[96.8834097 u]
{-86.12035 MeV}
5/2+(-) 0.787(8)97Rh
98Ru449854Ruthenium-9897.90529(5) u
[97.8811537 u]
{-88.2218 MeV}
0+98Rh
98Tc
99Ru449955Ruthenium-9998.905934(7) u
[98.8817977 u]
{-87.62191 MeV}
5/2+- 0.641(5)99Rh
99Tc
100Ru4410056Ruthenium-10099.904214(7) u
[99.8800777 u]
{-89.22408 MeV}
0+100Rh
100Tc
100Mo
101Ru4410157Ruthenium-101100.905577(8) u
[100.8814407 u]
{-87.95446 MeV}
5/2+- 0.718(6)101Rh
101Tc
101mRu4410157Ruthenium-101m100.905577(8) u
[100.8814407 u]
{-87.95446 MeV}
11/2-
102Ru4410258Ruthenium-102101.904344(8) u
[101.8802077 u]
{-89.10299 MeV}
0+102Rh
102Tc
103Ru4410359Ruthenium-103102.9063148(5) u
[102.8821785 u]
{-87.2672 MeV}
3/2+0.206(3)103Tc
103mRu4410359Ruthenium-103m102.9063148(5) u
[102.8821785 u]
{-87.2672 MeV}
11/2-
104Ru4410460Ruthenium-104103.90543(2) u
[103.8812937 u]
{-88.09139 MeV}
0+104Rh
104Tc
105Ru4410561Ruthenium-105104.9077455(27) u
[104.8836092 u]
{-85.93451 MeV}
3/2+(-) 0.32105Tc
105mRu4410561Ruthenium-105m104.9077455(27) u
[104.8836092 u]
{-85.93451 MeV}
(5/2)+
106Ru4410662Ruthenium-106105.907328(6) u
[105.8831917 u]
{-86.32341 MeV}
0+106Tc
107Ru4410763Ruthenium-107106.909970(9) u
[106.8858337 u]
{-83.8624 MeV}
(5/2)+107Tc
108Ru4410864Ruthenium-108107.910186(9) u
[107.8860497 u]
{-83.6612 MeV}
0+108Tc
252Cf
109Ru4410965Ruthenium-109108.913324(10) u
[108.8891877 u]
{-80.73817 MeV}
(5/2+)109Tc
252Cf
109mRu4410965Ruthenium-109m108.913324(10) u
[108.8891877 u]
{-80.73817 MeV}
(1/2+)
110Ru4411066Ruthenium-110109.914039(10) u
[109.8899027 u]
{-80.07216 MeV}
0+110Tc
111Ru4411167Ruthenium-111110.917568(10) u
[110.8934317 u]
{-76.78491 MeV}
5/2+111Tc
252Cf
248Cm
112Ru4411268Ruthenium-112111.918807(10) u
[111.8946707 u]
{-75.63079 MeV}
0+112Tc
113Ru4411369Ruthenium-113112.92285(4) u
[112.8987137 u]
{-71.86476 MeV}
(1/2+)252Cf
113mRu4411369Ruthenium-113m112.92285(4) u
[112.8987137 u]
{-71.86476 MeV}
(7/2-)
114Ru4411470Ruthenium-114113.924614(4) u
[113.9004777 u]
{-70.22161 MeV}
0+248Cm
115Ru4411571Ruthenium-115114.92894(10) u
[114.9048037 u]
{-66.19196 MeV}
(3/2+)
116Ru4411672Ruthenium-116115.931219(4) u
[115.9070827 u]
{-64.06909 MeV}
0+
117Ru4411773Ruthenium-117116.93613(46) u
[116.9119937 u]
{-59.49452 MeV}
118Ru4411874Ruthenium-118117.93853(21) u
[117.9143937 u]
{-57.25894 MeV}
0+
119Ru4411975Ruthenium-119118.94357(32) u
[118.9194337 u]
{-52.56421 MeV}
120Ru4412076Ruthenium-120119.94631(43) u
[119.9221737 u]
{-50.01191 MeV}
0+
121Ru4412177Ruthenium-121120.95164(43) u
[120.9275037 u]
{-45.04705 MeV}
122Ru4412278Ruthenium-122121.95475(54) u
[121.9306137 u]
{-42.1501 MeV}
0+
123Ru4412379Ruthenium-123122.96019(54) u
[122.9360537 u]
{-37.08278 MeV}
124Ru4412480Ruthenium-124123.96354(64) u
[123.9394037 u]
{-33.96227 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Ru-85450 nsEC/β+85Tc
EC, p → 84Mo
p → 84Tc
?
?
?
14.9 MeV

Ru-86438 nsEC/β+86Tc
EC, p → 85Mo
?
?
11.8 MeV
Ru-87> 1.5 μsEC/β+87TcAL
Ru-881.2 sEC/β+88Tc
EC, p → 87Mo
100 %
?
7.34(33) MeV
AL
Ru-891.5(2) sEC/β+89Tc
ε, p → 88Mo
ca. 97 %
ca. 3 %
9.13(30) MeV
AL
Ru-9011(3) sEC/β+90Tc100 %5.841(4) MeVAL
Ru-918.0(4) sEC/β+91Tc100 %7.747(3) MeVAL
Ru-91m7.6(8) sEC/β+91Tc
EC, p → 90Mo
Iso → 91Ru
> 0 %
> 0 %
?


+x keV
Ru-923.65(5) minEC/β+92Tc100 %4.624(4) MeVAL
Ru-9359.7(6) sEC/β+93Tc100 %6.3894(23) MeVAL
Ru-93m110.8(3) sEC/β+93Tc
ε, p → 92Mo
Iso → 93Ru
78.0(23) %
0.027(5) %
22.0(23) %


734.40(10) keV
Ru-93m22.49(15) μs2085.5(9) keV
Ru-9451.8(6) minEC → 94Tc100 %1.575(5) MeVAL
Ru-94m71(4) μ sIso → 94Ru100 %2644.1(4) keV
Ru-951.643(13) hEC/β+95Tc100 %2.564(11) MeVAL
Ru-96stableAL
Ru-972.83(23) dEC/β+97Tc100 %1.104(5) MeVAL
Ru-98stableAL
Ru-99stableAL
Ru-100stableAL
Ru-101stableAL
Ru-101m17.5(4) μsIso → 101Ru100 %527.56(10) keV
Ru-102stableAL
Ru-10339.247(13) dβ-103Rh100 %0.7645(23) MeVAL
Ru-103m1.69(7) msIso → 103Ru100 %238.2(7) keV
Ru-104stableAL
Ru-1054.44(2) hβ-105Rh100 %1.916(8) MeVAL
Ru-105340(15) ns20.610(13) keV
Ru-106371.8(18) dβ-106Rh100 %0.03940(21) MeVAL
Ru-1073.75(5) minβ-107Rh100 %3.001(15) MeVAL
Ru-1084.55(5) minβ-108Rh100 %1.370(16) MeVAL
Ru-10934.4(2) sβ-109Rh100 %4.261(10) MeVAL
Ru-109m0.50(12) μs68.75(12) keV
Ru-11012.04(17) sβ-110Rh100 %2.756(19) MeVAL
Ru-1112.12(7) sβ-111Rh100 %5.519(12) MeVAL
Ru-1121.75(7) sβ-112Rh100 %4.10(5) MeVAL
Ru-1130.80(5) sβ-113Rh100 %6.90(4) MeVAL
Ru-113m510(30) msβ-113Rhca. 100 %0 + X keV
Ru-1140.54(3) sβ-114Rh100 %5.49(7) MeVAL
Ru-115318(19) msβ-115Rh
β-, n → 114Rh
100 %
?
8.04(9) MeV
1.45(11) MeV
AL
Ru-116204(6) msβ-116Rh
β-, n → 115Rh

?
6.67(7) MeV
2.09(8) MeV
AL
Ru-117151(3) msβ-117Rh
β-, n → 116Rh
100 %
?
9.41(43) MeV
3.17(44) MeV
AL
Ru-11899(3) msβ-118Rh
β-, n → 117Rh

?
7.63(20) MeV
3.57(20) MeV
AL
Ru-11969.5(20) msβ-119Rh
β-, n →
β-, 2n →

?
?
10.26(30) MeV
4.25(30) MeV
AL
Ru-12042(2) msβ-120Rh
β-, n → 119Rh

8.80(45) MeV
4.74(40) MeV
AL
Ru-12129(2) msβ-121Rh
β-, n → 120Rh
β-, 2n → 119Rh

?
?
11.20(74) MeV
5.70(45) MeV
AL
Ru-12225(1) msβ-122Rh
β-, n → 121Rh
β-, 2n →

?
?
9.93(58) MeV
6.03(80) MeV
AL
Ru-12319(2) msβ-123Rh
β-, n → 122Rh
β-, 2n → 121Rh

?
?
12.28(64) MeV
6.93(58) MeV
AL
Ru-12415(3) msβ-124Rh
β-, n → 123Rh
β-, 2n → 122Rh

?
?
10.93(72) MeV
7.33(72) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Ruthenium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Ruthenium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Ruthenium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Ruthenium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
99Ru
12,76(14) %
5/2+
- 0,641(5)- 1,2286+ 7,9(4)1,95530,00113
0,5358
101Ru
17,06(2) %
5/2+
- 0.718(6)- 1,3773+ 45,7(23)2,19160,00159
0,6005

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Ruthenium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Ru-94106 Bq100 Bq/g51.8 min
Ru-97107 Bq10 Bq/g0,3 TBq10 Bq cm-22.9 d
Ru-103+106 Bq1 Bq/g0,1 TBq10 Bq cm-2Rh-102m39.3 d
Ru-105+106 Bq10 Bq/g0,08 TBq1 Bq cm-24.4 h
Ru-106+105 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,3 TBq10 Bq cm-2Rh-106372.6 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Ruthenium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Ruthenium: NMR properties - 99Ru-NMR, 101Ru-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - John W. Arblaster:
The Discoverers of the Ruthenium Isotopes.
In: Platinum Metals Review, (2011), DOI 10.1595/147106711x592448.

[10] - A. Nystrom, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.002.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



© 1996 - 2022 Internetchemistry




I agree!

This site uses cookies. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies! Learn more ...