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Isotopes of Radium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Radium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Radium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element radium are summarized under radium isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 88 protons and in the uncharged state of 88 electrons. The difference between the individual radium isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Radium Isotopes

The 34 known isotopes of radium are all unstable and decay radioactively with medium to very short half-lives. The occurrence of radium in nature is correspondingly rare; Sources of radium are radioactive decay processes of other elements. The isotope radium-226 with a half-life of 1602 years is the most stable and most common nuclide.

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Radium
Isotopic mixture
226,025409353 u100 %
Isotope 226Ra226,0254085(21) u100 %1600(7) a0+

 

Significant amounts of different radium isotopes are released during uranium extraction, which in turn is a source of the volatile radon isotopes.

 

Use

Radium isotopes are hardly used in technology and medicine. The low occurrence and thus the low availability, but also the high radioactive radiation are some of the reasons for this. In some earlier applications, the radium was replaced by more manageable nuclides.

In the past, 224radium chloride was used as so-called radium therapy against Morbus Bechterew (thorium-X therapy); at the moment, however, there are no longer any manufacturers for 224RaCl2.

As a form of therapy with the radium nuclide 223Ra 223radium dichloride under the trade name Xofigo is currently used against bone metastases and prostate cancer.

 

Isotope Table: Radium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
201Ra88201113Radium-201201.012815(22) u
[200.964546 u]
{11.9371 MeV}
(13/2+)
202Ra88202114Radium-202202.009742(16) u
[201.961473 u]
{9.07461 MeV}
0+
203Ra88203115Radium-203203.00930(4) u
[202.961031 u]
{8.66289 MeV}
(3/2-)
203mRa88203115Radium-203m203.00930(4) u
[202.961031 u]
{8.66289 MeV}
(13/2+)
204Ra88204116Radium-204204.006502(16) u
[203.958233 u]
{6.05657 MeV}
0+
205Ra88205117Radium-205205.00627(8) u
[204.958001 u]
{5.84047 MeV}
(3/2-)209Th
205mRa88205117Radium-205m205.00627(8) u
[204.958001 u]
{5.84047 MeV}
(13/2+)
206Ra88206118Radium-206206.003828(19) u
[205.955559 u]
{3.56576 MeV}
0+210Th
207Ra88207119Radium-207207.00381(6) u
[206.955541 u]
{3.54899 MeV}
(5/2-,3/2-)211Th
207mRa88207119Radium-207m207.00381(6) u
[206.955541 u]
{3.54899 MeV}
(13/2+)
208Ra88208120Radium-208208.001855(10) u
[207.953586 u]
{1.72792 MeV}
0+212Th
208Ac
208mRa88208120Radium-208m208.001855(10) u
[207.953586 u]
{1.72792 MeV}
(8+)
209Ra88209121Radium-209209.001995(6) u
[208.953726 u]
{1.85833 MeV}
5/2-+ 0.852(16)213Th
209Ac
209mRa88209121Radium-209m209.001995(6) u
[208.953726 u]
{1.85833 MeV}
13/2+
210Ra88210122Radium-210210.000475(10) u
[209.952206 u]
{0.44246 MeV}
0+214Th
210Ac
210mRa88210122Radium-210m210.000475(10) u
[209.952206 u]
{0.44246 MeV}
8+
211Ra88211123Radium-211211.000893(8) u
[210.952624 u]
{0.83182 MeV}
5/2(-)+ 0.8780(38)215Th
211Ac
211mRa88211123Radium-211m211.000893(8) u
[210.952624 u]
{0.83182 MeV}
(13/2+)
212Ra88212124Radium-212211.999786(12) u
[211.951517 u]
{-0.19934 MeV}
0+216Th
212Ac
212m1Ra88212124Radium-212m1211.999786(12) u
[211.951517 u]
{-0.19934 MeV}
(8)+7.10(7)
212m2Ra88212124Radium-212m2211.999786(12) u
[211.951517 u]
{-0.19934 MeV}
(11)-12.0(2)
213Ra88213125Radium-213213.000371(11) u
[212.952102 u]
{0.34558 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.0613217Th
213Ac
213mRa88213125Radium-213m213.000371(11) u
[212.952102 u]
{0.34558 MeV}
(17/2-)7.4
214Ra88214126Radium-214214.000100(6) u
[213.951831 u]
{0.09315 MeV}
0+218Th
214Ac
215Ra88215127Radium-215215.002720(8) u
[214.954451 u]
{2.53366 MeV}
(9/2+)219Th
215Ac
215m1Ra88215127Radium-215m1215.002720(8) u
[214.954451 u]
{2.53366 MeV}
(25/2+)
215m2Ra88215127Radium-215m2215.002720(8) u
[214.954451 u]
{2.53366 MeV}
(29/2-)
215m3Ra88215127Radium-215m3215.002720(8) u
[214.954451 u]
{2.53366 MeV}
(43/2-)15.61(6)
216Ra88216128Radium-216216.003533(9) u
[215.955264 u]
{3.29097 MeV}
0+220Th
217Ra88217129Radium-217217.006323(8) u
[216.958054 u]
{5.88984 MeV}
(9/2+)221Th
217Ac
218Ra88218130Radium-218218.007140(12) u
[217.958871 u]
{6.65087 MeV}
0+222Th
219Ra88219131Radium-219219.010085(9) u
[218.961816 u]
{9.39412 MeV}
(7/2)+223Th
220Ra88220132Radium-220220.011026(9) u
[219.962757 u]
{10.27065 MeV}
0+224Th
220Ac
220Fr
221Ra88221133Radium-221221.013917(5) u
[220.965648 u]
{12.9636 MeV}
5/2+- 0.1799(17)225Th
221Fr
222Ra88222134Radium-222222.015373(5) u
[221.967104 u]
{14.31986 MeV}
0+226Th
222Ac
222Fr
223Ra88223135Radium-223223.0185007(22) u
[222.9702317 u]
{17.23329 MeV}
3/2++ 0.2705(19)227Th
223Ac
223Fr
224Ra88224136Radium-224224.0202105(19) u
[223.9719415 u]
{18.82596 MeV}
0+228Th
224Ac
224Fr
224+Ra88224136Radium-224+
225Ra88225137Radium-225225.0236106(28) u
[224.9753416 u]
{21.99313 MeV}
1/2+- 0.7338(15)229Th
225Fr
226Ra88226138Radium-226226.0254085(21) u
[225.9771395 u]
{23.66787 MeV}
0+230Th
226Ac
226Fr
227Ra88227139Radium-227227.0291765(21) u
[226.9809075 u]
{27.17773 MeV}
3/2+- 0.4038(24)231Th
227Fr
228Ra88228140Radium-228228.0310687(21) u
[227.9827997 u]
{28.94031 MeV}
0+232Th
228Fr
229Ra88229141Radium-229229.034957(17) u
[228.986688 u]
{32.56224 MeV}
5/2++ 0.5025(27)229Fr
230Ra88230142Radium-230230.037055(11) u
[229.988786 u]
{34.51651 MeV}
0+230Fr
231Ra88231143Radium-231231.041027(12) u
[230.992758 u]
{38.2164 MeV}
(5/2+)231Fr
231mRa88231143Radium-231m231.041027(12) u
[230.992758 u]
{38.2164 MeV}
(1/2+)
232Ra88232144Radium-232232.043475(10) u
[231.995206 u]
{40.4967 MeV}
0+232Fr
233Ra88233145Radium-233233.047595(9) u
[232.999326 u]
{44.33446 MeV}
1/2+
234Ra88234146Radium-234234.050382(9) u
[234.002113 u]
{46.93053 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Ra-2011.6 msα → 197Rn
EC/β+201Fr
~100 %
?
8.002(12) MeV
8.348(22) MeV
AL
Ra-202ca. 16 msα → 198Rn~100 %7.880(7) MeVAL
Ra-203ca. 31 msα → 199Rn
β+ 203Fr
~100 %
selten
7.736(6) MeV
AL
Ra-203mca. 24 msα → 199Rn
β+ 203Fr
~100%
> 0 %

220(90) keVAL
Ra-204ca. 57 msα → 200Rn
β+204Fr
99.7 %
0.3 %
7.637(7) MeV
AL
Ra-205ca. 210 msα → 201Rn
EC/β+205Fr
~100%
> 0 %
7.49(5) MeV
7.15(7) MeV
AL
Ra-205m180(50) msα → 201Rn
Iso 205Ra
~100%
> 0 %

310(110) KeVAL
Ra-2060.24(2) sα → 202Rnca. 100 %7.415(4) MeVAL
Ra-207ca. 1.35 sα → 203Rn
EC/β+207Fr
86 %
14 %
7.27(5) MeV
6.39(6) MeV
AL
Ra-207m59(4) msIso → 207Ra
α → 203Rn
>85 %
< 15 %

554(15) keVAL
Ra-2081.3(2) sα → 204Rn
EC/β+208Fr
95 %
5 %
7.273(5) MeV
4.394(15) MeV
AL
Ra-208m270(21) ns2147.4(4) KeVAL
Ra-2094.8(2) sα → 205Rn
EC/β+209Fr
90 %
10 %
7.1431(27) MeV
5.628(16) MeV
AL
Ra-209m117(5) μs882.4(7) keV
Ra-2103.7(2) sα → 206Rn
EC/β+210Fr
96 %
4 %
7.151(3) MeV
3.776(18) MeV
AL
Ra-210m2.1(1) μs2050.9(7) keVAL
Ra-21113(2) sα → 207Rn
EC/β+211Fr
93 %
7 %
7.042(3) MeV
4.972(14) MeV
AL
Ra-211m9.7(6) μsIso → 211Ra100 %1198.1(8) keV
Ra-21213.0(2) sα → 208Rn
EC/β+212Fr
85 %
15 %
7.0317(17) MeV
3.317(14) MeV
AL
Ra-212m110.9(4) μs1958.4(5) keVAL
Ra-212m20.85(13) μs2613.4(5) keVAL
Ra-2132.73(5) minα → 209Rn
EC/β+213Fr
80(5) %
20(5) %
6.8617(23) MeV
3.898(11) MeV
AL
Ra-213m2.15(7) msIso → 213Ra
α → 209Ra
99 %
1 %

1770(7) keVAL
Ra-2142.46(3) sα → 210Rn
EC → 214Fr
99.941(4) %
0.059(4) %
7.2726(26) MeV
1.051(10) MeV
AL
Ra-2151.66(2) msα → 211Rn100 %8.864(3) MeVAL
Ra-215m17.29(20) μs1877.8(3) keVAL
Ra-215m21.39(7) μs2246.9(4) keVAL
Ra-215m30.555(10) μs3756.6(4)+x keVAL
Ra-216182(10) nsα → 212Rn
EC → 216Fr
~100%
> 0%
9.526(8) MeV
0.32(1) MeV
AL
Ra-2171.6(2) μsα → 213Rn100 %9.161(6) MeVAL
Ra-21825.2(3) μsα → 214Rn100 %8.546(6) MeVAL
Ra-21910(3) msα → 215Rn100 %8.138(3) MeVAL
Ra-22018(2) msα → 216Rn100 %7.592(6) MeVAL
Ra-22128(2) sα → 217Rn
CD → 207Pb
und 14C
100 %
-
-
6.8804(19) MeV
-
-
AL
Ra-22238.0(5) sα → 218Rn
CD → 208Pb
14C
100 %
selten
selten
6.678(4) MeV
-
-
AL
Ra-22311.43(5) dα → 219Rn
CD → 209Pb
14C
100%
selten
selten
5.97899(21) MeV
-
-
AL
Ra-2243.6319(23) dα → 220Rn
CD → 210Pb
14C
100 %
-
-
5.78892(15) MeV
-
-
AL
Ra-224+
Ra-22514.9(2) dβ-225Ac
α → 221Rn
99.974 %
0.026(6) %
0.356(5) MeV
5.097(5) MeV
AL
Ra-2261600(7) aα → 222Rn
CD → 212Pb
14C

-
-
4.87070(25) MeV
-
-
AL
Ra-22742.2(5) minβ-227Ac100 %1.3281(23) MeVAL
Ra-2285.75(3) aβ-228Ac100 %0.0455(6) MeVAL
Ra-2294.0(2) minβ-229Ac100 %1.872(20) MeVAL
Ra-23093(2) minβ-230Ac100 %0.678(19) MeVAL
Ra-231104(1) sβ-231Ac100 %2.454(17) MeVAL
Ra-231m53 μs66.21(9) keVAL
Ra-2324.2(8) minβ-232Ac100 %1.343(16) MeVAL
Ra-23330(5) sβ-233Ac100 %3.026(16) MeVAL
Ra-23430(10) sβ-234Ac100 %2.089(16) MeVAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Radium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Radium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Radium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Radium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
223Ra

3/2+
+ 0,2705(19)+ 125,4(3)1,37460,00017
0,1614
225Ra

1/2+
- 0,7338(15)11,1870,01814
0,2627

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Radium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Ra-223+105 Bq1002 Bq/g0,1 TBq1 Bq cm-2Rn219, Po215, Pb211, Bi211, Tl207, Po21111.4 d
Ra-224+105 Bq10 Bq/g0,05 TBq1 Bq cm-2Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208, Po2123.6 d
Ra-225105 Bq10 Bq/g0,1 Bq cm-214.8 d
Ra-226+104 Bq0,02 Bq/g0,04 TBq1 Bq cm-2Rn222, Po218, Pb214, Bi214, Pb210, Bi210, Po210, Po2141600 a
Ra-227106 Bq100 Bq/g10 Bq cm-242.2 min
Ra-228+105 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,03 TBq1 Bq cm-2Ac-2285.8 a

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Radium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Radium: NMR properties - 223Ra-NMR, 225Ra-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - C. Fry, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.05.003.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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