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Isotopes of Polonium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Polonium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Polonium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element polonium are summarized under polonium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 84 protons and, in the uncharged state, 84 electrons. The difference between each polonium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

The known nuclides of the chemical element polonium are all unstable and therefore radioactive; the artificial nuclide polonium-209 has the longest lifetime with a half-life of 103 years.

Natural polonium deposits consist of 99.998% of the isotope 210Po; in addition, the isotopes Po-211, 212, 214, 215, 216 and 218 occur in traces.

209Po and 208Po are replaced by α-proton or deuteron bombardment of lead or bismuth in a cyclotron.

 

Isotope Table: Polonium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
186Po84186102Polonium-186186.004403(20) u
[185.9583277 u]
{4.10137 MeV}
0+
187Po84187103Polonium-187187.00304(3) u
[186.9569647 u]
{2.83174 MeV}
(1/2-,5/2-)
188Po84188104Polonium-188187.999416(21) u
[187.9533407 u]
{-0.54399 MeV}
0+
189Po84189105Polonium-189188.998473(24) u
[188.9523977 u]
{-1.42239 MeV}
(5/2-)
190Po84190106Polonium-190189.995101(14) u
[189.9490257 u]
{-4.56339 MeV}
0+
191Po84191107Polonium-191190.994558(8) u
[190.9484827 u]
{-5.06919 MeV}
(3/2-)195Rn
191mPo84191107Polonium-191m190.994558(8) u
[190.9484827 u]
{-5.06919 MeV}
(13/2+)
192Po84192108Polonium-192191.991336(12) u
[191.9452607 u]
{-8.07046 MeV}
0+196Rn
192mPo84192108Polonium-192m191.991336(12) u
[191.9452607 u]
{-8.07046 MeV}
(11-)
193Po84193109Polonium-193192.991062(16) u
[192.9449867 u]
{-8.32569 MeV}
(3/2-)-0.389(3)197Rn
193mPo84193109Polonium-193m192.991062(16) u
[192.9449867 u]
{-8.32569 MeV}
(13/2+)-0.742(65)
194Po84194110Polonium-194193.988186(14) u
[193.9421107 u]
{-11.00467 MeV}
0+198Rn
194mPo84194110Polonium-194m193.988186(14) u
[193.9421107 u]
{-11.00467 MeV}
(11-)
195Po84195111Polonium-195194.98813(4) u
[194.9420547 u]
{-11.05683 MeV}
(3/2-)-0.601(42)199Rn
195mPo84195111Polonium-195m194.98813(4) u
[194.9420547 u]
{-11.05683 MeV}
(13/2+)-0.932(65)
196Po84196112Polonium-196195.985536(15) u
[195.9394607 u]
{-13.47313 MeV}
0+200Rn
196mPo84196112Polonium-196m195.985536(15) u
[195.9394607 u]
{-13.47313 MeV}
11-
197Po84197113Polonium-197196.98566(5) u
[196.9395847 u]
{-13.35762 MeV}
(3/2-)-0.882(65)201Rn
197mPo84197113Polonium-197m196.98566(5) u
[196.9395847 u]
{-13.35762 MeV}
(13/2+)-1.053(75)
198Po84198114Polonium-198197.983389(19) u
[197.9373137 u]
{-15.47305 MeV}
0+202Rn
198m1Po84198114Polonium-198m1197.983389(19) u
[197.9373137 u]
{-15.47305 MeV}
11-
198m2Po84198114Polonium-198m2197.983389(19) u
[197.9373137 u]
{-15.47305 MeV}
12+
199Po84199115Polonium-199198.983673(19) u
[198.9375977 u]
{-15.2085 MeV}
(3/2-)-0.912(65)203Rn
199mPo84199115Polonium-199m198.983673(19) u
[198.9375977 u]
{-15.2085 MeV}
(13/2+)-1.005(70)
200Po84200116Polonium-200199.981812(8) u
[199.9357367 u]
{-16.94201 MeV}
0+204Rn
200At
201Po84201117Polonium-201200.982264(5) u
[200.9361887 u]
{-16.52098 MeV}
3/2-0.984(70)205Rn
201At
201mPo84201117Polonium-201m200.982264(5) u
[200.9361887 u]
{-16.52098 MeV}
13/2+1.002(70)
202Po84202118Polonium-202201.980739(9) u
[201.9346637 u]
{-17.94151 MeV}
0+206Rn
202At
203Po84203119Polonium-203202.981416(9) u
[202.9353407 u]
{-17.31088 MeV}
5/2-+0.7405(15)207Rn
203At
203m1Po84203119Polonium-203m1202.981416(9) u
[202.9353407 u]
{-17.31088 MeV}
13/2+-0.965(67)
203m2Po84203119Polonium-203m2202.981416(9) u
[202.9353407 u]
{-17.31088 MeV}
204Po84204120Polonium-204203.980310(12) u
[203.9342347 u]
{-18.34112 MeV}
0+208Rn
204At
204mPo84204120Polonium-204m203.980310(12) u
[203.9342347 u]
{-18.34112 MeV}
8++7.38(10)
205Po84205121Polonium-205204.981190(11) u
[204.9351147 u]
{-17.5214 MeV}
5/2-+ 0.76(6)209Rn
205At
205m1Po84205121Polonium-205m1204.981190(11) u
[204.9351147 u]
{-17.5214 MeV}
1/2-
205m2Po84205121Polonium-205m2204.981190(11) u
[204.9351147 u]
{-17.5214 MeV}
13/2+- 0.95(5)
205m3Po84205121Polonium-205m3204.981190(11) u
[204.9351147 u]
{-17.5214 MeV}
19/2-
205m4Po84205121Polonium-205m4204.981190(11) u
[204.9351147 u]
{-17.5214 MeV}
29/2-
206Po84206122Polonium-206205.980474(4) u
[205.9343987 u]
{-18.18835 MeV}
0+210Rn
206At
206m1Po84206122Polonium-206m1205.980474(4) u
[205.9343987 u]
{-18.18835 MeV}
8++7.34(7)
206m2Po84206122Polonium-206m2205.980474(4) u
[205.9343987 u]
{-18.18835 MeV}
9-
207Po84207123Polonium-207206.981593(7) u
[206.9355177 u]
{-17.14601 MeV}
5/2-+ 0.79(6)211Rn
207At
207m1Po84207123Polonium-207m1206.981593(7) u
[206.9355177 u]
{-17.14601 MeV}
1/2-
207m2Po84207123Polonium-207m2206.981593(7) u
[206.9355177 u]
{-17.14601 MeV}
13/2+-0.910(14)
207m3Po84207123Polonium-207m3206.981593(7) u
[206.9355177 u]
{-17.14601 MeV}
19/2-
208Po84208124Polonium-208207.9812456(19) u
[207.9351703 u]
{-17.46961 MeV}
0+212Rn
208At
208mPo84208124Polonium-208m207.9812456(19) u
[207.9351703 u]
{-17.46961 MeV}
8++7.37(5)
209Po84209125Polonium-209208.9824303(19) u
[208.936355 u]
{-16.36607 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.68(8)213Rn
209At
209mPo84209125Polonium-209m208.9824303(19) u
[208.936355 u]
{-16.36607 MeV}
31/2-9.68(8)
210Po84210126Polonium-210209.9828736(12) u
[209.9367983 u]
{-15.95314 MeV}
0+214Rn
210At
210Bi
210mPo84210126Polonium-210m209.9828736(12) u
[209.9367983 u]
{-15.95314 MeV}
16+9.84(8)
211Po84211127Polonium-211210.9866531(13) u
[210.9405778 u]
{-12.43256 MeV}
9/2+-1.197(85)215Rn
211At
211Bi
211m1Po84211127Polonium-211m1210.9866531(13) u
[210.9405778 u]
{-12.43256 MeV}
(25/2+)
211m2Po84211127Polonium-211m2210.9866531(13) u
[210.9405778 u]
{-12.43256 MeV}
(31/2-)
211m3Po84211127Polonium-211m3210.9866531(13) u
[210.9405778 u]
{-12.43256 MeV}
(43/2+)
212Po84212128Polonium-212211.9888679(12) u
[211.9427926 u]
{-10.36948 MeV}
0+216Rn
212Bi
212mPo84212128Polonium-212m211.9888679(12) u
[211.9427926 u]
{-10.36948 MeV}
(18+)
213Po84213129Polonium-213212.992857(3) u
[212.9467817 u]
{-6.65366 MeV}
9/2+217Rn
213Bi
214Po84214130Polonium-214213.9952012(16) u
[213.9491259 u]
{-4.47005 MeV}
0+218Rn
214Bi
215Po84215131Polonium-215214.9994185(23) u
[214.9533432 u]
{-0.54166 MeV}
9/2+219Rn
215Bi
216Po84216132Polonium-216216.0019135(19) u
[215.9558382 u]
{1.78241 MeV}
0+220Rn
216Bi
217Po84217133Polonium-217217.006316(7) u
[216.9602407 u]
{5.88332 MeV}
(9/2+)-1.106(103)221Rn
217Bi
218Po84218134Polonium-218218.0089715(21) u
[217.9628962 u]
{8.3569 MeV}
0+222Rn
218Bi
219Po84219135Polonium-219219.013614(17) u
[218.9675387 u]
{12.68136 MeV}
(9/2+)
220Po84220136Polonium-220220.016386(19) u
[219.9703107 u]
{15.26346 MeV}
0+
221Po84221137Polonium-221221.021228(21) u
[220.9751527 u]
{19.77375 MeV}
222Po84222138Polonium-222222.02414(4) u
[221.9780647 u]
{22.48627 MeV}
0+
223Po84223139Polonium-223223.02907(21) u
[222.9829947 u]
{27.07853 MeV}
224Po84224140Polonium-224224.03211(21) u
[223.9860347 u]
{29.91027 MeV}
0+
225Po84225141Polonium-225225.03707(32) u
[224.9909947 u]
{34.53048 MeV}
226Po84226142Polonium-226226.04031(43) u
[225.9942347 u]
{37.54852 MeV}
0+
227Po84227143Polonium-227227.04539(43) u
[226.9993147 u]
{42.28051 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Po-18628 μsα → 182Pb~ 100 %8.501(14) MeV
Po-1871.40(25) msα → 183Pb~100 %7.979(15) MeVAL
Po-1880.27(3) msα → 184Pb~100 %8.082(15) MeVAL
Po-1893.5(5) msα → 185Pb~100 %7.694(15) MeVAL
Po-1902.46(5) msα → 186Pb100 %7.693(7) MeVAL
Po-19122(1) msα → 187Pb99.0(10) %7.493(5) MeVAL
Po-191m93(3) msα → 187Pb96(4) %40(15) keVAL
Po-19232.2(3) msα → 188Pb
EC/β+192Bi
ca. 99.5 %
ca. 0.5 %
7.230(3) MeV
5.46(3) MeV
AL
Po-192m0.58(10) μsIso → 192Po100 %2294.6 keV
Po-1930.399(34) sα → 189Pb≤ 100 %7.094(4) MeVAL
Po-193m245(22) msα → 189Pb≤ 100 %100(6) keVAL
Po-1940.392(4) sα → 190Pb
EC/β+194Bi
ca. 100 %
?
6.987(3) MeV
5.024(14) MeV
AL
Po-194m15(2) μs2525.2(8) keV
Po-1954.64(9) sα → 191Pb
EC/β+195Bi
94(4) %
6(4) %
6.7499(28) MeV
6.97(4) MeV
AL
Po-195m1.92(2) sα → 191Pb
EC/β+195Bi
Iso → 195Po
ca. 90 %
ca. 10 %
< 0.01 %


230 keVAL
Po-1965.8(2) sα → 192Pb
EC/β+196Bi
ca. 98 %
ca. 2 %
6.6581(24) MeV
4.536(28) MeV
AL
Po-196m856(17) nsIso → 196Po2493.9(4) keV
Po-19784(16) sα → 193Pb
EC/β+197Bi
44(7) %
56(7) %
6.412(3) MeV
6.33(5) MeV
AL
Po-197m32(2) sα → 193Pb
EC/β+197Bi
Iso → 197Po
84(9) %
16(9) %
0.01 %


204 keVAL
Po-1981.760(24) minα → 194Pb
EC/β+198Bi
57(2) %
43(2) %
6.3097(14) MeV
3.90(3) MeV
AL
Po-198m1200(20) ns2565.92(20) keV
Po-198m20.75(5) μs2691.86+x keV
Po-1995.47(15) minα → 195Pb
EC/β+199Bi
7.5(3) %
92.5(3) %
6.0743(19) MeV
5.589(21) MeV
AL
Po-199m4.17(5) minα → 195Pb
EC/β+199Bi
Iso → 199Po
24(1) %
73.5(10) %
2.5(10) %


310(2) keVAL
Po-20011.51(8) minα → 196Pb
EC/β+200Bi
11.1(3) %
88.9(3) %
5.9816(18) MeV
3.429(24) MeV
AL
Po-20115.6(1) minα → 197Pb
EC/β+201Bi
1.13(3) %
98.87(3) %
5.7993(17) MeV
4.895(16) MeV
AL
Po-201m8.96(12) minα → 197Pb
EC/β+201Bi
Iso → 201Po
2.4(5) %
41.4(7) %
56.2(12) %


424.1(23) keVAL
Po-20244.6(4) minα → 198Pb
EC/β+202Bi
1.92(7) %
98.08(7) %
5.7010(17) MeV
2.800(18) MeV
AL
Po-20336.7(5) minα → 199Pb
EC/β+203Bi
0.11(2) %
99.89(2) %
5.496(5) MeV
4.214(15) MeV
AL
Po-203m145(2) sIso → 203Po
EC/β+203Bi
ca. 100 %
?

641.68(17) keVAL
Po-203m2200 ns2158.5(6) keV
Po-2043.519(12) hα → 200Pb
EC/β+204Bi
0.67(3) %
99.33(3) %
5.4849(14) MeV
2.305(14) MeV
AL
Po-204m1639.03(6) keV
Po-2051.74(8) hα → 201Pb
EC/β+205Bi
0.04(1) %
99.96(1) %
5.325(10) MeV
3.543(11) MeV
AL
Po-205m1310(60) ns143.166(17) keV
Po-205m20.645(20) msIso → 205Po100 %880.31(7) keVAL
Po-205m357.4(9) msIso → 205Po100 %1461.21(21) keVAL
Po-205m4115(10) ns3087.2(4) keV
Po-2068.8(1) dα → 202Pb
EC/β+206Bi
5.45(5) %
94.55(5) %
5.3270(13) MeV
1.840(9) MeV
AL
Po-206m1232(4) ns1585.90(11) keV
Po-206m21.05(6) μs2.262.09(12) keV
Po-2075.80(2) hα → 203Pb
EC/β+207Bi
0.021(2) %
99.979(2) %
5.2159(25) MeV
2.909(7) MeV
AL
Po-207m1205(10) ns68.557(14) keV
Po-207m249(4) μs1115.076(17) keV
Po-207m32.79(8) sIso → 207Po100 %AL
Po-2082.898(2) aα → 204Pb
EC/β+208Bi
99.9960(4) %
0.0040(4) %
5.2154(13) MeV
1.4006(29) MeV
AL
Po-208m350(20) ns2528.22(4)
Po-209124(3) aα → 205Pb
EC/β+209Bi
99.546(7) %
0.454(7) %
4.9792(14) MeV
1.8926(22) MeV
AL
Po-209n119(4) ns
Po-210138.376(2) dα → 206Pb100 %5.40753(7) MeVAL
Po-210m263(5) ns5057.65(5) keV
Po-2110.516(3) sα → 207Pb100 %7.5946(5) MeVAL
Po-211m125.2(6) sα → 207Pb
Iso → 211Po
99.984(4) %
0.016(4) %

1462(5) keVAL
Po-211m2243(21) nsIso → 211Po100 %2135(5) keV
Po-211m32.8(7) μsIso → 211Po100 %4872(6) keV
Po-2120.299(2) μsα → 208Pb100 %8.95420(11) MeVAL
Po-212m45.1(6) sα → 208Pb
Iso → 212Po
99.93(2) %
0.07(2) %

2922(15) keVAL
Po-2133.72(2) μsα → 209Pb100 %8.5361(26) MeVAL
Po-214164.3(20) μsα → 210Pb100 %7.83354(6) MeVAL
Po-2151.781(4) msα → 211Pb
β-215At
99.99977(2) %
0.00023(2) %
7.5263(8) MeV
0.714(7) MeV
AL
Po-2160.145(2) sα → 212Pb100 %6.9063(5) MeVAL
Po-2171.53(5) sα → 213Pb
β-217At
> 95 %
< 5 %
6.6621(23) MeV
1.489(8) MeV
AL
Po-2183.098(12) minα → 214Pb
β-218At
99.980(2) %
0.020(2) %
6.11475(9) MeV
0.259(12) MeV
AL
Po-219620(59) sβ-219At
α → 215Pb
71.8(20) %
28.2(20) %
2.285(16) MeV
5.91(5) MeV
AL
Po-220300 nsβ-220At?0.888(23) MeVAL
Po-221112 sβ-221At?2.991(24) MeVAL
Po-222550(430) sβ- ? AL
Po-223300 nsβ-223At?3.65(20) MeVAL
Po-224300 nsβ-224At?2.2(2) MeVAL
Po-225300 nsβ-225At?4.14(42) MeVAL
Po-226300 nsβ-226At?2.93(50) MeVAL
Po-227300 nsβ-227At?4.8(5) MeV4.8(5) MeVAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Polonium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Polonium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Polonium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Polonium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
209Po
Spuren
1/2-
+ 0,68(8)7,411,70,02096
0,2757

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Polonium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Po-203106 Bq1 Bq cm-21 Bq/cm236.7 min
Po-205106 Bq10 Bq/g1 Bq cm-21.7 h
Po-206106 Bq10 Bq/g8.8 d
Po-207106 Bq10 Bq/g1 Bq cm-25.8 h
Po-208104 Bq1 Bq/g2.9 a
Po-209104 Bq1 Bq/g102.0 a
Po-210104 Bq1 Bq/g0,06 TBq1 Bq cm-2138.4 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Polonium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Polonium: NMR properties - 209Po-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - C. Fry, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of the thallium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.01.005.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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