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Isotopes of Plutonium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Plutonium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Plutonium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element plutonium are summarized under plutonium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 94 protons and, in the uncharged state, 94 electrons. The difference between the individual plutonium isotopes is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

Apart from extremely small traces of plutonium, for example in uranium deposits, plutonium can be described as an artificially produced, synthetic element. Technically available and usable plutonium isotopes therefore come from nuclear reactors fueled by uranium-238 (Pu-239); further Pu nuclides can be represented from this by further neutron capture.

Plutonium-238 was the first isotope to be isolated and described in 1940.

 

Isotope Table: Plutonium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
228Pu94228134Plutonium-228228.03874(3) u
[227.9871805 u]
{36.08608 MeV}
0+
229Pu94229135Plutonium-229229.04015(5) u
[228.9885905 u]
{37.39948 MeV}
(3/2+)
230Pu94230136Plutonium-230230.039651(16) u
[229.9880915 u]
{36.93467 MeV}
0+
231Pu94231137Plutonium-231231.041126(24) u
[230.9895665 u]
{38.30862 MeV}
(3/2+)
232Pu94232138Plutonium-232232.041185(19) u
[231.9896255 u]
{38.36358 MeV}
0+
233Pu94233139Plutonium-233233.04300(5) u
[232.9914405 u]
{40.05424 MeV}
234Pu94234140Plutonium-234234.043317(7) u
[233.9917575 u]
{40.34953 MeV}
0+238Cm
234Am
235Pu94235141Plutonium-235235.045285(22) u
[234.9937255 u]
{42.18271 MeV}
(5/2+)235Am
236Pu94236142Plutonium-236236.0460568(19) u
[235.9944973 u]
{42.90163 MeV}
0+236Am
236Np
240Cm
237Pu94237143Plutonium-237237.0484080(18) u
[236.9968485 u]
{45.09176 MeV}
7/2-237Am
241Cm
237m1Pu94237143Plutonium-237m1237.0484080(18) u
[236.9968485 u]
{45.09176 MeV}
1/2+
237m2Pu94237143Plutonium-237m2237.0484080(18) u
[236.9968485 u]
{45.09176 MeV}
238Pu94238144Plutonium-238238.0495582(12) u
[237.9979987 u]
{46.16317 MeV}
0+238Am
238Np
242Cm
239Pu94239145Plutonium-239239.0521617(12) u
[239.0006022 u]
{48.58831 MeV}
1/2++ 0.203(4)239Am
239Np
243Cm
239m1Pu94239145Plutonium-239m1239.0521617(12) u
[239.0006022 u]
{48.58831 MeV}
7/2-
239m2Pu94239145Plutonium-239m2239.0521617(12) u
[239.0006022 u]
{48.58831 MeV}
(5/2+)
240Pu94240146Plutonium-240240.0538118(12) u
[240.0022523 u]
{50.12537 MeV}
0+240Am
240Np
244Cm
240mPu94240146Plutonium-240m240.0538118(12) u
[240.0022523 u]
{50.12537 MeV}
241Pu94241147Plutonium-241241.0568497(12) u
[241.0052902 u]
{52.95515 MeV}
5/2+- 0.683(15)241Np
245Cm
241m1Pu94241147Plutonium-241m1241.0568497(12) u
[241.0052902 u]
{52.95515 MeV}
1/2+
241m2Pu94241147Plutonium-241m2241.0568497(12) u
[241.0052902 u]
{52.95515 MeV}
242Pu94242148Plutonium-242242.0587410(13) u
[242.0071815 u]
{54.71689 MeV}
0+242Am
242Np
246Cm
243Pu94243149Plutonium-243243.0620021(27) u
[243.0104426 u]
{57.75458 MeV}
7/2+243Np
247Cm
243mPu94243149Plutonium-243m243.0620021(27) u
[243.0104426 u]
{57.75458 MeV}
(1/2+)
244Pu94244150Plutonium-244244.0642044(25) u
[244.0126449 u]
{59.80601 MeV}
0+244Np
248Cm
244mPu94244150Plutonium-244m244.0642044(25) u
[244.0126449 u]
{59.80601 MeV}
8-
245Pu94245151Plutonium-245245.067825(15) u
[245.0162655 u]
{63.17858 MeV}
(9/2-)
245mPu94245151Plutonium-245m245.067825(15) u
[245.0162655 u]
{63.17858 MeV}
(5/2+)
246Pu94246152Plutonium-246246.070204(16) u
[246.0186445 u]
{65.3946 MeV}
0+
247Pu94247153Plutonium-247247.07419(21) u
[247.0226305 u]
{69.10754 MeV}
(1/2+)

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Pu-2281.1(+20-5) sα → 224U100 %7.94(18) MeVAL
Pu-22990(+71-27) sα → 225U100 %7.59(5) MeVAL
Pu-230102(19) sα → 226U≤ 100 %7.181(7) MeVAL
Pu-2318.6(5) minα → 227U
EC/β+231Np
10(4) %
90(4) %
6.839(20) MeV
2.68(6) MeV
AL
Pu-23233.8(7) minα → 228U
EC → 232Np
(10 %)
(90 %)
6.716(10) MeV
1.0(1) MeV
AL
Pu-23320.9(4) minα → 229U
EC/β+233Np
0.12(5) %
99.88(5) %
6.42(5) MeV
2.10(7) MeV
AL
Pu-2348.8(1) hα → 230U
EC → 234Np
ca. 6 %
ca. 94 %
6.31(5) MeV
0.395(11) MeV
AL
Pu-23525.3(5) minα → 231U
EC/β+235Np
0.0028(7) %
99.9972(7) %
5.951(20) MeV
1.139(21) MeV
AL
Pu-2362.858(8) aα → 232U
SF div
ca. 100 %
Spuren
5.86715(8) MeV
AL
Pu-23745.64(4) dα → 233U
EC → 237Np
0.0042(4) %
99.9958(4) %
5.7476(23) MeV
0.2201(20) MeV
AL
Pu-237m10.18(2) sIso → 237Pu100 %145.543(8) keVAL
Pu-237m21.1(1) μsSF div> 0 %2900(250) keVAL
Pu-23887.7(1) aα → 234U
SF div
ca. 100 %
Spuren
5.59327(19) MeV
AL
Pu-23924110(30) aα → 235U
SF div
ca. 100 %
Spuren
5.24452(21) MeV
AL
Pu-239m1193(4) ns391.584(3) keV
Pu-239m27.5(10) μsSF div< 100 %3100 keV
Pu-2406.561(7) aα → 236U
SF div
100 %
0.0000057 %
5.25582(14) MeV
AL
Pu-240m165(10) ns1308.74(5) keV
Pu-24114.329(29) aα → 237U
SF div
β-241Am
Spuren
Spuren
99.998 %
5.1401(5) MeV

0.02078(17) MeV
AL
Pu-241m10.88(5) μs161.6853(9) keV
Pu-241m220.5(22) μsSF div100 %2200 keV
Pu-242375000 aα → 238U
SF div
ca. 100 %
Spuren
4.9842(10) MeV
AL
Pu-2434.956(3) hβ-243Am100 %0.5796(26) MeVAL
Pu-243m0.33(3) μs383.64(25) keVAL
Pu-2448.13(3) × 107 aα → 240U
SF div
99.877(6) %
0.123(6) %
4.6656(10) MeV
AL
Pu-244m1.75(12) s1211.2(8)
Pu-24510.5(1) hβ-245Am100 %1.278(14) MeVAL
Pu-245m0.33(2) μs264.5(3) keV
Pu-24610.84(2) dβ-246Am100 %0.401(14) MeVAL
Pu-2472.27(23) dβ-247Am100 %1.95(22) MeVAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Plutonium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Plutonium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Plutonium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Plutonium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
239Pu

1/2+
+ 0,203(4)0,9723,090,00038
0,0727

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Plutonium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Pu-234107 Bq100 Bq/g10 Bq cm-28.8 h
Pu-235107 Bq100 Bq/g10 Bq cm-225.3 min
Pu-236104 Bq1 Bq/g0,1 TBq0,1 Bq cm-22.9 a
Pu-237107 Bq100 Bq/g2 TBq100 Bq cm-245.3 d
Pu-238104 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,06 TBq0,1 Bq cm-287.7 a
Pu-239+104 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,06 TBq0,1 Bq cm-224000 a
Pu-240103 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,06 TBq0,1 Bq cm-26600 a
Pu-241+105 Bq10 Bq/g3 TBq10 Bq cm-214.3 a
Pu-242104 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,07 TBq0,1 Bq cm-2370000 a
Pu-243107 Bq1000 Bq/g100 Bq cm-25.0 h
Pu-244+104 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,0003 TBq0,1 Bq cm-2U-240, Np-240m, Np-2408.0 × 107 a
Pu-245+106 Bq100 Bq/g10.5 h
Pu-246+106 Bq100 Bq/g10.9 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Plutonium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Plutonium: NMR properties - 239Pu-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - D. F. Peppard et al.:
Isolation of Microgram Quantities of Naturally-occurring Plutonium and Examination of its Isotopic Composition.
In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1951), DOI 10.1021/ja01150a034.

[10] - D. C. Hoffman, F. O. Lawrence, J. L. Mewherter, F. M. Rourke:
Detection of Plutonium-244 in Nature.
In: Nature, (1971), DOI 10.1038/234132a0.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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