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Isotopes of Lithium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Lithium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Lithium isotopes

2 natural nuclides and 8 artificial radiosotopes as well as 2 nuclear isomers are known from the alkali metal lithium.

 

Naturally Occurring Lithium Isotopes

Natural lithium deposits consist of the isotopes 6Li with 1.9 to 7.8% and 7Li with 92.2 to 98.1%; This results in a relative atomic mass for terrestrial lithium of 6.94 u on average or an interval of 6.938 to 6.997 u.

Lithium-6 is found e.g. Used in tritium production and as a neutron absorber and is obtained from natural lithium by isopen fractionation; this means that commercially available lithium and lithium compounds can have several percent less 6Li.

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Lithium
Isotopic mixture
6,94 u100 %
Isotope 6Li6,015122887(9) u4,85 %stable1+
Isotope 7Li7,01600344(3) u95,15 %stable3/2-

 

Isotope Table: Lithium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
4Li341Lithium-44.02719(23) u
[4.0255443 u]
{25.32732 MeV}
2-
5Li352Lithium-55.01254(5) u
[5.0108943 u]
{11.68093 MeV}
3/2-
6Li363Lithium-66.015122887(9) u
[6.0134771 u]
{14.08688 MeV}
1++ 0.822043(3)6He
7Li374Lithium-77.01600344(3) u
[7.0143577 u]
{14.90711 MeV}
3/2-+ 3.256407(12)11Be
7Be
8Li385Lithium-88.02248625(5) u
[8.0208405 u]
{20.94581 MeV}
2++ 1.65350(2)8He
9Li396Lithium-99.02679019(20) u
[9.0251445 u]
{24.9549 MeV}
3/2-3.43666(6)
10Li3107Lithium-1010.035483(14) u
[10.0338373 u]
{33.0522 MeV}
(1-,2-)
11Li3118Lithium-1111.0437236(7) u
[11.0420779 u]
{40.72827 MeV}
3/2-3.6711(2)
12Li3129Lithium-1212.05261(3) u
[12.0509643 u]
{49.0059 MeV}
3/2-

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Li-491(9) × 10-24 sp → 3He100 %22.90(21) MeVAL
Li-5370(3) × 10-24 sp → 4He?26.3 MeVAL
Li-6stableAL
Li-7stableAL
Li-8839.9(9) msβ-8Be
β-, α → 4He

16.00413(6) MeV
AL
Li-9178.3(4) msβ-9Be
β-, n → 8Be
49.2 %
50.8 %
13.60645(20) MeV
11.941 MeV
AL
Li-102.0(5) × 10-21 sn → 9Li100 %AL
Li-118.75(14) msβ-11Be
β-, n → 10Be
100 %
20.5511(7) MeV
20.0494(6) MeV
AL
Li-12< 10 nsn → 11LiAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Lithium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Lithium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Lithium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Lithium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
6Li
4,85 %
1+
+ 0,822043(3)3,9371-0,08086,26610,00850
0,3925
7Li
95,15 %
3/2-
+ 3,256407(12)10,3976- 4,0116,54830,29356
1,9434

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Lithium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Lithium: NMR properties - 6Li-NMR, 7Li-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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