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Isotopes of Germanium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Germanium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Germanium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element germanium are summarized under germanium isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 32 protons and in the uncharged state of 32 electrons. The difference between the individual germanium isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Germanium Isotopes

Natural occurrences of germanium are composed of the 5 isotopes Ge-70, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74 and Ge-76, of which germanium-76 decays with a half-life of 130 trillion years and is therefore slightly radioactive ; all other natural germanium nuclides are considered stable.

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Germanium
Isotopic mixture
72,630 u100 %
Isotope 70Ge69,924249(6) u20,52(19) %stable0+
Isotope 72Ge71,9220758(5) u27,45(15) %stable0+
Isotope 73Ge72,9234590(4) u7,76(8) %stable9/2+
Isotope 74Ge73,92117776(9) u36,52(12) %stable0+
Isotope 76Ge75,9214027(2) u7,75(12) %1.926(94) × 1021 a0+

 

In addition, 27 other germanium radioisotopes could be characterized.

 

Isotope Table: Germanium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
59Ge325927Germanium-5958.98296(43) u
[58.965406 u]
{-15.87266 MeV}
7/2-
60Ge326028Germanium-6059.97092(32) u
[59.953366 u]
{-27.08785 MeV}
0+
61Ge326129Germanium-6160.96419(32) u
[60.946636 u]
{-33.3568 MeV}
(3/2-)
62Ge326230Germanium-6261.95519(15) u
[61.937636 u]
{-41.74025 MeV}
0+
63Ge326331Germanium-6362.94963(4) u
[62.932076 u]
{-46.91935 MeV}
3/2-
64Ge326432Germanium-6463.94169(4) u
[63.924136 u]
{-54.31542 MeV}
0+
65Ge326533Germanium-6564.9393681(23) u
[64.9218141 u]
{-56.47825 MeV}
3/2-
66Ge326634Germanium-6665.9338621(26) u
[65.9163081 u]
{-61.60706 MeV}
0+66As
67Ge326735Germanium-6766.932734(5) u
[66.91518 u]
{-62.65788 MeV}
1/2-67As
67m1Ge326735Germanium-67m166.932734(5) u
[66.91518 u]
{-62.65788 MeV}
5/2-
67m2Ge326735Germanium-67m266.932734(5) u
[66.91518 u]
{-62.65788 MeV}
9/2+-0.849(18)
68Ge326836Germanium-6867.9280953(20) u
[67.9105413 u]
{-66.9788 MeV}
0+68As
69Ge326937Germanium-6968.9279645(14) u
[68.9104105 u]
{-67.10064 MeV}
5/2-0.735(7)69As
69m1Ge326937Germanium-69m168.9279645(14) u
[68.9104105 u]
{-67.10064 MeV}
1/2-
69m2Ge326937Germanium-69m268.9279645(14) u
[68.9104105 u]
{-67.10064 MeV}
9/2+-1.001(3)
70Ge327038Germanium-7069.924249(6) u
[69.906695 u]
{-70.5616 MeV}
0+70As
70Ga
71Ge327139Germanium-7170.9249523(9) u
[70.9073983 u]
{-69.90648 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.546(5)71As
71mGe327139Germanium-71m70.9249523(9) u
[70.9073983 u]
{-69.90648 MeV}
9/2+- 1.0413(7)
72Ge327240Germanium-7271.9220758(5) u
[71.9045218 u]
{-72.58592 MeV}
0+72As
72Ga
72mGe327240Germanium-72m71.9220758(5) u
[71.9045218 u]
{-72.58592 MeV}
0+
73Ge327341Germanium-7372.9234590(4) u
[72.905905 u]
{-71.29748 MeV}
9/2+-0.87824(5)73As
73Ga
73m1Ge327341Germanium-73m172.9234590(4) u
[72.905905 u]
{-71.29748 MeV}
5/2+-1.08(3)
73m2Ge327341Germanium-73m272.9234590(4) u
[72.905905 u]
{-71.29748 MeV}
1/2-
74Ge327442Germanium-7473.92117776(9) u
[73.9036238 u]
{-73.42244 MeV}
0+74As
74Ga
75Ge327543Germanium-7574.92285837(5) u
[74.9053044 u]
{-71.85697 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.509(5)75Ga
75m1Ge327543Germanium-75m174.92285837(5) u
[74.9053044 u]
{-71.85697 MeV}
7/2+
75m2Ge327543Germanium-75m274.92285837(5) u
[74.9053044 u]
{-71.85697 MeV}
5/2+
76Ge327644Germanium-7675.9214027(2) u
[75.9038487 u]
{-73.21291 MeV}
0+76Ga
77Ge327745Germanium-7776.92354984(6) u
[76.9059959 u]
{-71.21287 MeV}
7/2+77Ga
77mGe327745Germanium-77m76.92354984(6) u
[76.9059959 u]
{-71.21287 MeV}
1/2-
78Ge327846Germanium-7877.922853(4) u
[77.905299 u]
{-71.86197 MeV}
0+78Ga
79Ga
79Ge327947Germanium-7978.92536(4) u
[78.907806 u]
{-69.52671 MeV}
(1/2)-79Ga
80Ga
79mGe327947Germanium-79m78.92536(4) u
[78.907806 u]
{-69.52671 MeV}
(7/2+)
80Ge328048Germanium-8079.9253508(22) u
[79.9077968 u]
{-69.53528 MeV}
0+80Ga
81Ga
81Ge328149Germanium-8180.9288329(22) u
[80.9112789 u]
{-66.29173 MeV}
(9/2+)81Ga
82Ga
81mGe328149Germanium-81m80.9288329(22) u
[80.9112789 u]
{-66.29173 MeV}
(1/2+)
82Ge328250Germanium-8281.9297740(24) u
[81.91222 u]
{-65.4151 MeV}
0+82Ga
83Ga
83Ge328351Germanium-8382.9345391(26) u
[82.9169851 u]
{-60.97644 MeV}
(5/2)+
84Ge328452Germanium-8483.937575(3) u
[83.920021 u]
{-58.14851 MeV}
0+
85Ge328553Germanium-8584.942970(4) u
[84.925416 u]
{-53.1231 MeV}
(3/2+,5/2+)
86Ge328654Germanium-8685.94697(47) u
[85.929416 u]
{-49.39713 MeV}
0+
87Ge328755Germanium-8786.95268(32) u
[86.935126 u]
{-44.0783 MeV}
(5/2+)
88Ge328856Germanium-8887.95691(43) u
[87.939356 u]
{-40.13808 MeV}
0+
89Ge328957Germanium-8988.96379(43) u
[88.946236 u]
{-33.7294 MeV}
3/2+
90Ge329058Germanium-9089.96863(54) u
[89.951076 u]
{-29.22097 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Ge-5913.3(17) ms2 p → 57Zn
EC/β+58Ga
< 0.2 %
?

17.89(43) MeV
Ge-60110 nsEC/β+60Ga
EC, p 59Zn
?
?
12.50(36) MeV
AL
Ge-6144(6) msEC/β+61Ga
EC, p → 60Zn
< 38 %
> 62 %
13.77(30) MeV
AL
Ge-62129(35) msEC/β+62Ga
EC, p → 61Zn

?
10.25(14) MeV
AL
Ge-63150(9) msEC/β+63Ga100 %9.63(40) MeVAL
Ge-6463.7(25) sEC/β+64Ga100 %4.517(4) MeVAL
Ge-6530.9(5) sEC/β+65Ga
EC, p → 65Zn
99.9 %
0.011(3) %
6.1793(23) MeV
AL
Ge-662.26(5) hEC/β+66Ga100 %2.1166(26) MeVAL
Ge-6718.9(3) minEC/β+67Ga100 %4.221(5) MeVAL
Ge-67m113.7(9) μs18.20(5) keV
Ge-67m2146(4) ns751.70(6) keV
Ge-68270.95(13) dEC → 68Ga100 %0.1072(24) MeVAL
Ge-6939.05(10) hEC/β+69Ga100 %2.2271(18) MeVAL
Ge-69m15.1(2) μsIso → 69Ge100 %86.76(2) keV
Ge-69m22.81(5) μsIso → 69Ge100 %397.94(2) keV
Ge-70stableAL
Ge-7111.43(3) dEC → 71Ga100 %0.2326(12) MeVAL
Ge-71m20.41(18) msIso → 71Ge100 %198.354(14) keVAL
Ge-72stableAL
Ge-72m444.2(8) ns691.43(4) keV
Ge-73stableAL
Ge-73m10.499(11) s13.2845(15) keVAL
Ge-73m2499(11) msIso → 73Ge100 %66.725(9) keV
Ge-74stableAL
Ge-7582.78(4) minβ-75As100 %11.772(9) MeVAL
Ge-75m147.7(5) sβ-75As
Iso → 75Ge
0.030(6) %
99.970(6) %

139.69(3) KeVAL
Ge-75m2216(5) ns192.19(6) keV
Ge-761.926(94) × 1021 aβ- β-76SeAL
Ge-7711.211(3) hβ-77As100 %2.7035(17) MeVAL
Ge-77m53.7(6) sβ-77As
Iso → 77Ge
81(2) %
19(2) %

159.71(6)AL
Ge-7888.0(10) minβ-78As100 %0.955(10) MeVAL
Ge-7918.98(3) sβ-79As100 %4.11(4) MeVAL
Ge-79m39.0(10) sβ-79As
Iso → 79Ge
96(1) %
4(1) %

185.95(4) keVAL
Ge-8029.5(4) sβ-80As100 %2.679(4) MeVAL
Ge-817.6(6) sβ-81As100 %6.242(3) MeVAL
Ge-81m7.6(6) sβ-81As100 %679.14(4) keVAL
Ge-824.0(7) sβ-82As100 %4.690(4) MeVAL
Ge-831.85(6) sβ-83As
β-, n → 82As
100 %
?
8.693(4) MeV
1.058(4) MeV
AL
Ge-84954(14) msβ-84As
β-, n → 83As
89.8 %
10.2(9) %
7.705(4) MeV
3.450(4) MeV
AL
Ge-85503(18) msβ-85As
β-, n → 84As
β-, 2n → 83As
83.5 %
16.5(23) %
?
10.066(5) MeV
4.659(5) MeV
AL
Ge-86226(21) msβ-86As
β-, n → 85As
55 %
45(15) %
9.56(44) MeV
5.72(44) MeV
AL
Ge-870.14 sβ-87As
β-, n → 86As
100 %
?
11.54(30) MeV
6.81(30) MeV
AL
Ge-88300 nsβ-88As
β-, n → 87As
?
?
10.58(44) MeV
7.41(40) MeV
AL
Ge-89300 nsβ-89As
β-, n → 88As
β-, 2n → 87As
?
?
?
13.07(50) MeV
8.92(44) MeV
AL
Ge-90635 nsβ-90As
β-, n → 89As
β-, 2n → 88As
?
?
?
12.11(64) MeV
9.51(58) MeV

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Germanium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Germanium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Germanium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Germanium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
73Ge
7,76(8) %
9/2+
-0,87824(5)0,93660- 19,61,48970,00141
1,1547

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Germanium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Ge-66106 Bq10 Bq/g2.3 h
Ge-67105 Bq10 Bq/g18.9 min
Ge-68+105 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,07 TBq1 Bq cm-2Ga-68271.0 d
Ge-69106 Bq10 Bq/g39.1 h
Ge-71108 Bq10000 Bq/g1000 TBq100 Bq cm-211.4 d
Ge-75106 Bq1000 Bq/g82.8 min
Ge-77105 Bq10 Bq/g0,06 TBq11.3 h
Ge-78106 Bq100 Bq/g88.0 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Germanium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Germanium: NMR properties - 73Ge-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - A.M. Bakalyarov, A.Ya. Balysh, S.T. Belyaev, V.I. Lebedev, S.V. Zhukov:
Results of the experiment on investigation of Germanium-76 double beta decay.
In: Experimental data of Heidelberg-Moscow collaboration November 1995 - August 2001, (2003), DOI https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0309016.

[10] - J. L. Gross, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of gallium, germanium, lutetium, and hafnium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2011.09.004.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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