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Isotopes of Cobalt

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Cobalt as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Cobalt isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element cobalt are summarized under cobalt isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 27 protons and, in the uncharged state, 27 electrons. The difference between each cobalt isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus. The spelling cobalt is also often found.

 

Naturally Occurring Cobalt Isotopes

The element cobalt occurs in nature only in the form of a single, stable isotope with the standard atomic mass 58.933195(5) u: Co-59.

All other cobalt isotopes are unstable radionuclides. Some of these radioisotopes are used in medicine, industry, research and food irradiation.

 

 

Cobalt-60

With a half-life of 5.3 years, cobalt-60 is the longest-lived radioactive cobalt isotope and is artificially activated by neutron activation (e.g. with 252 Cf or in the neutron flux of nuclear reactors) from the natural cobalt-59. Co-60 is widely used in medicine and industry.

The so-called cobalt gun or cobalt bomb is a radiation device for radiation therapy of cancer diseases and uses Co-60 as a gamma radiation source. Other areas of application are the preservation or sterilization of food (cold pasteurization) and medical products, non-destructive radiographic testing for material tests, density tests, etc.

 

Isotope Table: Cobalt

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
46Co274619Cobalt-46[46] u
[45.9851887 u]
{0 MeV}
47Co274720Cobalt-4747.01149(54) u
[46.9966787 u]
{10.70287 MeV}
7/2-~48Ni
48Co274821Cobalt-4848.00176(43) u
[47.9869487 u]
{1.63943 MeV}
6+~
49Co274922Cobalt-4948.98972(28) u
[48.9749087 u]
{-9.57576 MeV}
7/2-~49Ni
50Co275023Cobalt-5049.98107(43) u
[49.9662587 u]
{-17.63318 MeV}
(6+)50Ni
51Co275124Cobalt-5150.97065(5) u
[50.9558387 u]
{-27.33935 MeV}
7/2-51Ni
52Co275225Cobalt-5251.963112(9) u
[51.9483007 u]
{-34.36095 MeV}
(6+)52Ni
52mCo275225Cobalt-52m51.963112(9) u
[51.9483007 u]
{-34.36095 MeV}
2+
53Co275326Cobalt-5352.9542032(18) u
[52.9393919 u]
{-42.65944 MeV}
(7/2-)53Ni
53mCo275326Cobalt-53m52.9542032(18) u
[52.9393919 u]
{-42.65944 MeV}
(19/2-)
54Co275427Cobalt-5453.9484592(4) u
[53.9336479 u]
{-48.00995 MeV}
0+54Ni
54mCo275427Cobalt-54m53.9484592(4) u
[53.9336479 u]
{-48.00995 MeV}
7+
55Co275528Cobalt-5554.9419965(5) u
[54.9271852 u]
{-54.02991 MeV}
7/2-+ 4.822(3)55Ni
56Co275629Cobalt-5655.9398381(5) u
[55.9250268 u]
{-56.04045 MeV}
4+3.85(1)56Ni
57Co275730Cobalt-5756.9362899(6) u
[56.9214786 u]
{-59.34558 MeV}
7/2-+4.720(10)57Ni
58Co275831Cobalt-5857.9357514(12) u
[57.9209401 u]
{-59.84719 MeV}
2++4.044(8)
58m1Co275831Cobalt-58m157.9357514(12) u
[57.9209401 u]
{-59.84719 MeV}
5+
58m2Co275831Cobalt-58m257.9357514(12) u
[57.9209401 u]
{-59.84719 MeV}
4++4.184(8)
59Co275932Cobalt-5958.933194(4) u
[58.9183827 u]
{-62.22939 MeV}
7/2-+4.627(9)59Ni
59Fe
60Co276033Cobalt-6059.9338157(5) u
[59.9190044 u]
{-61.65028 MeV}
5++ 3.799(8)60Fe
60mCo276033Cobalt-60m59.9338157(5) u
[59.9190044 u]
{-61.65028 MeV}
2++ 4.40(9)
61Co276134Cobalt-6160.9324761(9) u
[60.9176648 u]
{-62.89811 MeV}
7/2-61Fe
62Co276235Cobalt-6261.934058(20) u
[61.9192467 u]
{-61.42458 MeV}
(2)+62Fe
62mCo276235Cobalt-62m61.934058(20) u
[61.9192467 u]
{-61.42458 MeV}
(5)+
63Co276336Cobalt-6362.93360(20) u
[62.9187887 u]
{-61.8512 MeV}
7/2-63Fe
64Co276437Cobalt-6463.935810(21) u
[63.9209987 u]
{-59.7926 MeV}
1+64Fe
65Co276538Cobalt-6564.9364621(22) u
[64.9216508 u]
{-59.18517 MeV}
(7/2)-65Fe
66Co276639Cobalt-6665.939443(15) u
[65.9246317 u]
{-56.40848 MeV}
(3+)66Fe
66m1Co276639Cobalt-66m165.939443(15) u
[65.9246317 u]
{-56.40848 MeV}
(5+)
66m2Co276639Cobalt-66m265.939443(15) u
[65.9246317 u]
{-56.40848 MeV}
(8-)
67Co276740Cobalt-6766.940610(7) u
[66.9257987 u]
{-55.32143 MeV}
(7/2-)67Fe
68Co276841Cobalt-6867.94425(20) u
[67.9294387 u]
{-51.93079 MeV}
(7-)68Fe
68mCo276841Cobalt-68m67.94425(20) u
[67.9294387 u]
{-51.93079 MeV}
1+
69Co276942Cobalt-6968.94602(15) u
[68.9312087 u]
{-50.28205 MeV}
(7/2-)69Fe
70Co277043Cobalt-7069.94994(32) u
[69.9351287 u]
{-46.63059 MeV}
(6-,7-)70Fe
70mCo277043Cobalt-70m69.94994(32) u
[69.9351287 u]
{-46.63059 MeV}
(3+)
71Co277144Cobalt-7170.95237(50) u
[70.9375587 u]
{-44.36706 MeV}
(7/2-)71Fe
72Co277245Cobalt-7271.95684(43) u
[71.9420287 u]
{-40.20328 MeV}
(6-,7-)72Fe
73Co277346Cobalt-7372.95983(43) u
[72.9450187 u]
{-37.41811 MeV}
(7/2-)~
74Co277447Cobalt-7473.96477(54) u
[73.9499587 u]
{-32.81653 MeV}
0+
75Co277548Cobalt-7574.96817(54) u
[74.9533587 u]
{-29.64945 MeV}
(7/2-)~
76Co277649Cobalt-7675.97369(64) u
[75.9588787 u]
{-24.50761 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Co-46p → 45Fe
Co-47p → 46FeAL
Co-48p → 47FeAL
Co-49< 35 nsp und β+ AL
Co-5038(2) msβ+, p → 49Mn
EC, 2p → 48Mn
β+50Fe
70.5(7) %
?
?


16.85(40) MeV
AL
Co-5168.8(19) msEC β+51Fe
EC p → 50Mn
> 96.2 %
< 3.8 %
12.86(5) MeV
AL
Co-52104(7) msEC β+52Fe
β+, p → 51Mn
100 %
?
13.696(19) MeV
AL
Co-52m104 ms380(100) keVAL
Co-53240(9) msEC β+53Fe100 %8.2881(24) MeVAL
Co-53m247(12) msEC β+53Fe
p → 52Fe
98.5 %
1.5 %

3197(29) keVAL
Co-54193.28(7) msEC β+54Fe100 %8.2445(5) MeVAL
Co-54m1.48(2) minEC β+54Fe100 %8.445(5) MeV197.1(4) keVAL
Co-5517.53(3) hEC β+55Fe100 %3.4514(5) MeVAL
Co-5677.236(26) dEC β+56Fe100 %4.5667(6) MeVAL
Co-57271.74(6) dEC → 57Fe100 %0.8363(6) MeVAL
Co-5870.86(6) dEC β+58Fe100 %2.3080(12) MeVAL
Co-58m19.10(9) hIso → 58Co100 %24.95(6) keVAL
Co-58m210.5(3) μsIso → 58Co100 %53.15(7) keVAL
Co-59stableAL
Co-605.2713(8) aβ-60Ni100 %2.82281(21) MeVAL
Co-60m10.467(6) minIso → 60Co
β-60Ni
99.75(3) %
0.25(3) %
0.059 MeV
1.56 MeV
58.59(1) keVAL
Co-611.649(5) hβ-61Ni100 %1.3238(8) MeVAL
Co-621.54(10) minβ-62Ni100 %5.322(19) MeVAL
Co-62m13.86(9) minβ-62Ni
Iso → 62Ni
> 99 %
< 1 %

22(5) keVAL
Co-6327.4(5) sβ-63Ni100 %3.661(19) MeVAL
Co-640.30(3) sβ-64Ni100 %7.307(20) MeVAL
Co-651.16(3) sβ-65Ni100 %5.9405(21) MeVAL
Co-660.20(2) sβ-66Ni100 %9.598(14) MeVAL
Co-66m11.21(1) μsIso 175 keVAL
Co-66m2100 μsIso 642 keVAL
Co-67425(20) msβ-67Ni100 %8.421(7) MeVAL
Co-680.20(2) sβ-68Ni100 %11.53(19) MeVAL
Co-68m1.6(3) sβ-68Ni100 %150 keVAL
Co-69227(11) msβ-69Ni100 %9.70(14) MeVAL
Co-70112(7) msβ-70Ni
β-, n → 69Ni
100 %
?
12.58(39) MeV
5.28(30) MeV
AL
Co-70m0.47(5) sβ-70Ni100 %100 %200 keVAL
Co-7180(3) msβ-71Ni
β-, n → 70Ni
94 %
6(2) %
11.04(47) MeV
6.77(47) MeV
AL
Co-7259.9(17) msβ-72Ni
β-, n → 71Ni
94 %
6 %
14.04(40) MeV
7.13(40) MeV
AL
Co-7340.7(13) msβ-73Ni
β-, n → 72Ni
β-, 2n → 71Ni

22(8) %
?
12.69(40) MeV
8.74(40) MeV
AL
Co-7431.3(15) msβ-74Ni
β-, n → 73Ni
β-, 2n → 72Ni

18(15) %
?
15.64(54) MeV
9.22(50) MeV
AL
Co-7530(11) msβ-75Ni
β-, n → 74Ni
β-, 2n → 73Ni

< 16 %
?
14.38(58) MeV
10.74(54) MeV
AL
Co-7621.7 msβ-76Ni
β-, n → 75Ni
β-, 2n → 74Ni

?
?
17.12(72) MeV
11.45(67) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Cobalt isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Cobalt isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Cobalt isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Cobalt nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
59Co
100 %
7/2-
+4,627(9)6,317+ 42,0(30)10,0770,27841
4,9703

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Cobalt radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Co-55106 Bq10 Bq/g0,02 TBq1 Bq cm-2N-6017.5 h
Co-56105 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,02 TBq1 Bq cm-277.3 d
Co-57106 Bq1 Bq/g0,7 TBq10 Bq cm-2271.8 d
Co-58106 Bq1 Bq/g0,07 TBq1 Bq cm-270.9 d
Co-58m107 Bq104 Bq/g0,07 TBq10 Bq cm-28.9 h
Co-60105 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,03 TBq1 Bq cm-25.3 a
Co-60m106 Bq1000 Bq/g100 Bq cm-210.5 min
Co-61106 Bq100 Bq/g10 Bq cm-21.7 h
Co-62m+105 Bq10 Bq/g1 Bq cm-213.9 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Cobalt nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Cobalt: NMR properties - 59Co-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - T.Szymanski, M.Thoennessen:
Discovery of the cobalt isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2010), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2010.06.006.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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