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Isotopes of Berkelium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Berkelium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Berkelium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element berkelium are summarized under berkelium isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 97 protons and in the uncharged state of 97 electrons. The difference between the individual berkelium isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

243Berkelium is a Chemical element from the actinide group, first produced and verified in 1949 as part of artificial nuclear processes.

All of the unstable, radioactive, 20 known isotopes of berkelium are created in nuclear reactors, for example from the nuclear reaction between americium and helium nuclei or by Irradiation of plutonium-239 with neutrons. Any small traces of the element in nature can be attributed to neutron capture by uranium nuclei. Bk-247 has the longest half-life of 1380 years.

Technically, the nuclides of Berkelium have no meaning - outside of nuclear research.

 

Isotope Table: Berkelium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
233Bk97233136Berkelium-233233.05675(24) u
[233.0035453 u]
{52.86228 MeV}
234Bk97234137Berkelium-234234.05739(15) u
[234.0041853 u]
{53.45844 MeV}
235Bk97235138Berkelium-235
236Bk97236139Berkelium-236236.05748(43) u
[236.0042753 u]
{53.54228 MeV}
(4+)
237Bk97237140Berkelium-237
238Bk97238141Berkelium-238238.05820(27) u
[238.0049953 u]
{54.21295 MeV}
239Bk97239142Berkelium-239239.05824(22) u
[239.0050353 u]
{54.25021 MeV}
(3/2-,7/2+)
240Bk97240143Berkelium-240240.05976(16) u
[240.0065553 u]
{55.66608 MeV}
244Es
241Bk97241144Berkelium-241241.06015(21) u
[241.0069453 u]
{56.02936 MeV}
(7/2+)245Es
242Bk97242145Berkelium-242242.06198(21) u
[242.0087753 u]
{57.734 MeV}
246Es
242m1Bk97242145Berkelium-242m1242.06198(21) u
[242.0087753 u]
{57.734 MeV}
242m2Bk97242145Berkelium-242m2242.06198(21) u
[242.0087753 u]
{57.734 MeV}
243Bk97243146Berkelium-243243.063006(5) u
[243.0098013 u]
{58.68971 MeV}
(3/2-)247Es
243Cf
244Bk97244147Berkelium-244244.065179(15) u
[244.0119743 u]
{60.71385 MeV}
(4-)248Es
245Bk97245148Berkelium-245245.0663599(19) u
[245.0131552 u]
{61.81385 MeV}
3/2-249Es
245Cf
246Bk97246149Berkelium-246246.06867(6) u
[246.0154653 u]
{63.96569 MeV}
2(-)
247Bk97247150Berkelium-247247.070306(6) u
[247.0171013 u]
{65.48962 MeV}
3/2-251Es
247Cf
248Bk97248151Berkelium-248248.07309(8) u
[248.0198853 u]
{68.0829 MeV}
(6+,8-)252Es
248mBk97248151Berkelium-248m248.07309(8) u
[248.0198853 u]
{68.0829 MeV}
1(-)
249Bk97249152Berkelium-249249.0749832(13) u
[249.0217785 u]
{69.8464 MeV}
7/2+2.0(4)253Es
249Cm
249mBk97249152Berkelium-249m249.0749832(13) u
[249.0217785 u]
{69.8464 MeV}
3/2-
250Bk97250153Berkelium-250250.078315(4) u
[250.0251103 u]
{72.94995 MeV}
2-254Es
250m1Bk97250153Berkelium-250m1250.078315(4) u
[250.0251103 u]
{72.94995 MeV}
(4+)
250m2Bk97250153Berkelium-250m2250.078315(4) u
[250.0251103 u]
{72.94995 MeV}
(7+)
251Bk97251154Berkelium-251251.080761(12) u
[251.0275563 u]
{75.22839 MeV}
(3/2-)255Es
251Cm
251mBk97251154Berkelium-251m251.080761(12) u
[251.0275563 u]
{75.22839 MeV}
(7/2+)
252Bk97252155Berkelium-252252.08431(21) u
[252.0311053 u]
{78.53426 MeV}
253Bk97253156Berkelium-253253.08688(38) u
[253.0336753 u]
{80.9282 MeV}
254Bk97254157Berkelium-254

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Bk-23321(+48-17) sα → 229Am
EC/β+233Cm
ca. 82 %
ca. 18 %
8.29(21) MeV
5.57(24) MeV
AL
Bk-234ca. 140 sα → 230Am
EC → 234Cm
≥ 80 %
≤ 20 %
8.10(5) MeV
6.73(14) MeV
AL
Bk-235- ungelistet -AL
Bk-23622(+13-6) sEC/β+236Cm
EC, SF div
96 %
4(2) %
5.69(40) MeV
AL
Bk-237- ungelistet -AL
Bk-238144(5) sEC/β+238Cm
EC, F
99.952 %
0.048(20) %
4.77(26) MeV
AL
Bk-239EC → 239Cm
α → 235Am
SF div
> 99 %
< 1 %
< 1 %
3.10(21) MeV
7.20(20) MeV
AL
Bk-2404.8(8) minEC/β+240Cm
EC/SF div
?
0.0020(13) %
3.95(15) MeV
AL
Bk-2414.6(4) minEC/β+241Cm
α → 237Am
?
?
2.33(20) MeV
7.04(21) MeV
AL
Bk-2427.0(13) minEC/β+242Cm≤ 100 %2.93(20) MeVAL
Bk-242m1600(100) nsSF div≤ 100 %+y keVAL
Bk-242m29.5(20) nsSF div≤ 100 %+x keVAL
Bk-2434.5(2) hEC/β+243Cm
α → 239Am
99.85 %
0.15 %
1.508(5) MeV
6.874(4) MeV
AL
Bk-2445.03(2) hEC/β+244Cm
α → 240Am
99.994(3) %
0.006(3) %
2.262(14) MeV
6.779(4) MeV
AL
Bk-2454.95(3) dEC → 245Cm
α → 241Am
99.88(1) %
0.12(1) %
0.8093(21) MeV
6.4545(14) MeV
AL
Bk-2461.80(2) dEC/β+246Cm100 %1.350(60) MeVAL
Bk-2471380(250) aα → 243Am≤ 100 %5.890(5) MeVAL
Bk-248> 9 aAL
Bk-248m23.7(2) hβ-248Cf
EC/β+248Cm
70(5) %
30(5) %

+x keVAL
Bk-249330(4) dβ-249Cf
α → 245Am
SF div
99.99855(8) %
0.00145(8) %
Spuren
0.1236(4) MeV
5.5210(14) MeV
AL
Bk-249m0.3 ms8.777(14) keVAL
Bk-2503.212(5) hβ-250Cf100 %1.780(3) MeVAL
Bk-250m129(1) μs35.59 keV
Bk-250m2213(8) μs86(2) keV
Bk-25155.6(11) minβ-251Cf100 %1.093(10) MeVAL
Bk-251m58(4) μs35.5(13) keV
Bk-252ca. 2 minAL
Bk-25310 minAL
Bk-254- ungelistet -AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Berkelium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Berkelium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Berkelium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Berkelium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Bk-245106 Bq100 Bq/g4.9 d
Bk-246+106 Bq10 Bq/g1.8 d
Bk-247104 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,08 TBq1400 a
Bk-249+106 Bq100 Bq/g10 Bq cm-2320.0 d
Bk-250106 Bq10 Bq/g3.2 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Berkelium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Berkelium: NMR properties

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - L. B. Magnusson et al.:
Berkelium and Californium Isotopes Produced in Neutron Irradiation of Plutonium.
In: Physical Review, (1954), DOI 10.1103/PhysRev.96.1576.

[10] - E. K. Hulet:
New Isotope of Berkelium.
In: Physical Review, (1956), DOI 10.1103/PhysRev.102.182.

[11] - T. A. Eastwood, J. P. Butler, M. J. Cabell, H. G. Jackson:
Isotopes of Berkelium and Californium Produced by Neutron Irradiation of Plutonium.
In: Physical Review, (1957), DOI 10.1103/PhysRev.107.1635.

[12] - Valentin N. Kosyakov:
Perspective methods for Berkelium-249 preparation and application.
In: Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, (2002), DOI 10.1080/00223131.2002.10875405.

[13] - Daiya Kaji et al.:
Decay Properties of New Isotopes 234Bk and 230Am, and Even-Even Nuclides 234Cm and 230Pu.
In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, (2015), DOI 10.7566/JPSJ.85.015002.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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