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Oxidation States

Data chart of the oxidation states of the chemical elements.




The following table lists the preferred (in bold), occasionally occurring, observed under certain conditions (in parentheses) and theoretically predicted oxidation states (in brackets) of the various chemical elements; in addition, the electron configurations of neutral atoms (oxidation state zero; outer electron shells) listed.

The oxidation number or oxidation state - sometimes referred to as oxidation value or electrochemical value - specifies the hypothetical charge of the atom of a molecule of a simple or a polyatomic ion if all bonds as exclusively ionic, ie without covalent share, be considered; it is now the atom, ie ion, out, so its positive, negative or neutral charge is equal to its oxidation number (note that in reality the ionic and covalent share of binding are quite different degrees. In polyatomic molecules of an element (for example, O2) is the oxidation state zero.

The identification of the oxidation state takes place with Roman numerals.



Data Table: Oxidation States

 

OZ Element Negativ Zero Positiv Electron Configuration
    -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9
1 Hydrogen −1 H +1 1s1
2 Helium He 1s2
3 Lithium Li +1 [He] 2s1
4 Beryllium Be (+1) +2 [He] 2s2
5 Boron B +1 +2 +3 [He] 2s2 2p1
6 Carbon −4 −3 −2 −1 C +1 +2 +3 +4 [He] 2s2 2p2
7 Nitrogen −3 −2 −1 N +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 [He] 2s2 2p3
8 Oxygen −2 −1 O +1 +2 [He] 2s2 2p4
9 Fluorine −1 F [He] 2s2 2p5
10 Neon Ne [He] 2s2 2p6
11 Sodium −1 Na +1 [Ne] 3s1
12 Magnesium Mg (+1) +2 [Ne] 3s2
13 Aluminium Al +1 (+2) +3 [Ne] 3s2 3p1
14 Silicon −4 −3 −2 −1 Si +1 +2 +3 +4 [Ne] 3s2 3p2
15 Phosphorus −3 −2 −1 P +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 [Ne] 3s2 3p3
16 Sulfur −2 −1 S +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [Ne] 3s2 3p4
17 Chlorine −1 Cl +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [Ne] 3s2 3p5
18 Argon Ar [Ne] 3s23p6
19 Potassium −1 K +1 [Ar] 4s1
20 Calcium Ca (+1) +2 [Ar] 4s2
21 Scandium Sc +1 +2 +3 [Ar] 3d1 4s2
22 Titanium −1 Ti (+1) +2 +3 +4 [Ar] 3d2 4s2
23 Vanadium −1 V +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 [Ar] 3d3 4s2
24 Chromium −2 −1 Cr +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [Ar] 3d5 4s1
25 Manganese −3 −2 −1 Mn +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [Ar] 3d5 4s2
26 Iron −2 −1 Fe +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [Ar] 3d6 4s2
27 Cobalt −1 Co +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 [Ar] 3d7 4s2
28 Nickel −1 Ni +1 +2 +3 +4 [Ar] 3d8 4s2
29 Copper Cu +1 +2 +3 +4 [Ar] 3d10 4s1
30 Zinc Zn (+1) +2 [Ar] 3d10 4s2
31 Gallium Ga +1 +2 +3 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
32 Germanium −4 (−3) (−2) (−1) Ge +1 +2 +3 +4 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
33 Arsenic −3 As (+1) +2 +3 +5 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3
34 Selenium −2 Se (+1) +2 +4 +6 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
35 Bromine −1 Br +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +7 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
36 Krypton Kr +2 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
37 Rubidium −1 Rb +1 [Kr] 5s1
38 Strontium Sr (+1) +2 [Kr] 5s2
39 Yttrium Y (+1) (+2) +3 [Kr] 4d1 5s2
40 Zirconium Zr +1 +2 +3 +4 [Kr] 4d2 5s2
41 Niobium −1 Nb (+1) +2 +3 +4 +5 [Kr] 4d4 5s1
42 Molybdenum −2 −1 Mo +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [Kr] 4d5 5s1
43 Technetium −3 −1 Tc +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [Kr] 4d6 5s1
44 Ruthenium −2 Ru +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [Kr] 4d7 5s1
45 Rhodium −1 Rh +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [Kr] 4d8 5s1
46 Palladium Pd (+1) +2 +4 [Kr] 4d10
47 Silver Ag +1 +2 +3 (+4) [Kr] 4d10 5s1
48 Cadmium Cd (+1) +2 [Kr] 4d10 5s2
49 Indium In +1 +2 +3 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
50 Tin −4 Sn +2 +4 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
51 Antimony −3 Sb +3 +5 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
52 Tellurium −2 Te +2 +4 +5 +6 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
53 Iodine −1 I +1 +3 (+4) +5 +7 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
54 Xenon Xe (+1) +2 +4 +6 +8 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
55 Cesium −1 Cs +1 [Xe] 6s1
56 Barium Ba +2 [Xe] 6s2
57 Lanthanum La +2 +3 [Xe] 5d1 6s2
58 Cerium Ce +2 +3 +4 [Xe] 4f2 6s2
59 Praseodymium Pr +2 +3 +4 [Xe] 4f3 6s2
60 Neodymium Nd +2 +3 (+4) [Xe] 4f4 6s2
61 Promethium Pm (+2) +3 [Xe] 4f5 6s2
62 Samarium Sm +2 +3 [Xe] 4f6 6s2
63 Europium Eu +2 +3 [Xe] 4f7 6s2
64 Gadolinium Gd +1 +2 +3 [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
65 Terbium Tb +1 (+2) +3 +4 [Xe] 4f9 6s2
66 Dysprosium Dy +2 +3 (+4) [Xe] 4f10 6s2
67 Holmium Ho (+2) +3 [Xe] 4f11 6s2
68 Erbium Er (+2) +3 [Xe] 4f12 6s2
69 Thulium Tm +2 +3 (+4) [Xe] 4f13 6s2
70 Ytterbium Yb +2 +3 [Xe] 4f14 6s2
71 Lutetium Lu +3 [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
72 Hafnium Hf +2 +3 +4 [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
73 Tantalum −1 Ta +2 +3 +4 +5 [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
74 Tungsten −2 −1 W +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
75 Rhenium −3 −1 Re +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
76 Osmium −2 (−1) Os +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
77 Iridium (−3) −1 Ir +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +8 +9 [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
78 Platinum (−3) (−2) (−1) Pt (+1) +2 (+3) +4 +5 +6 [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
79 Gold −1 Au +1 +2 +3 +5 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
80 Mercury Hg +1 +2 (+4) [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
81 Thallium Tl +1 +3 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
82 Lead −4 Pb +2 +4 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
83 Bismut −3 Bi (+1) +3 +5 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
84 Polonium −2 Po +2 +4 (+5) +6 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
85 Astatine −1 At +1 +3 +5 +7 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5
86 Radon Rn +2 (+6) [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6
87 Francium Fr +1 [Rn] 7s1
88 Radium Ra +2 [Rn] 7s2
89 Actinium Ac (+2) +3 [Rn] 6d1 7s2
90 Thorium Th +2 +3 +4 [Rn] 6d2 7s2
91 Protactinium Pa (+2) +3 +4 +5 [Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2
92 Uranium U (+2) +3 +4 +5 +6 [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
93 Neptunium Np +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2
94 Plutonium Pu +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 (+8) [Rn] 5f6 7s2
95 Americium Am +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 (+7) [Rn] 5f7 7s2
96 Curium Cm +3 +4 [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2
97 Berkelium Bk (+2) +3 +4 [Rn] 5f9 7s2
98 Californium Cf +2 +3 +4 [Rn] 5f10 7s2
99 Einsteinium Es +2 +3 [Rn] 5f11 7s2
100 Fermium Fm +2 +3 [Rn] 5f12 7s2
101 Mendelevium Md +2 +3 [Rn] 5f13 7s2
102 Nobelium No +2 +3 [Rn] 5f14 7s2
103 Lawrencium Lr +3 [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2
104 Rutherfordium Rf +4 [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
105 Dubnium Db +5 [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2
106 Seaborgium Sg +6 [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2
107 Bohrium Bh [+7] [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2
108 Hassium Hs [+8] [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2
109 Meitnerium Mt [+3] [+4] [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2
110 Darmstadtium Ds [+2] [+4] [+5] [+6] [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1
111 Roentgenium [-1] Rg [+1] [+3] [+5] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1
112 Copernicium Cn [+2] [+4] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2
113 Nihonium Nh [+1] [+2] [+3] [+5] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1
114 Flerovium Fl [+2] [+4] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2
115 Moscovium Mc [+1] [+3] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3
116 Livermorium Lv [+2] [+4] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4
117 Tennessine [-1] Ts [+1] [+3] [+5] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5
118 Oganesson Og [+1] [+2] [+4] [+6] [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6

 


Last update: 23 April 2018.






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