Phytochemical Analysis

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles.


The international scientific journal Phytochemical Analysis is devoted to the publication of original articles concerning the development, improvement, validation and/or extension of application of analytical methodology in the plant sciences. The spectrum of coverage is broad, encompassing methods and techniques relevant to the detection (including bio-screening), extraction, separation, purification, identification and quantification of compounds in plant biochemistry, plant cellular and molecular biology, plant biotechnology, the food sciences, agriculture and horticulture

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (phytochemistry):

 - Phytochemistry.

 - Phytochemistry Letters.

 - Phytochemistry Reviews.



Phytochemical Analysis - Abstracts



Chemotaxonomic Studies of Nine Gentianaceae Species from Western China Based on Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Introduction Gentianaceae species which widely occur all over the world are used as folk medicine and raw food material with bitter properties. Although comparative analysis on metabolites in several Gentianaceae species has been reported, metabolic similarities used for chemotaxonomic studies are not yet clear. Objective To systematically characterise the variations of holistic metabolome and characteristic metabolites (iridoid glycosides and phenols) in nine Gentianaceae species from western China. Methodology Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to determine the variations of holistic metabolome. A targeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was established for determination of seven characteristic metabolites and identification of their derivatives. Both FT-IR and LC–MS/MS data were subjected to chemometrics analysis for exploring variations in iridoid glycosides and phenols within these species. Results Holistic metabolome in genera Gentiana and Swertia was largely different. Diversity of the biosynthetic pathway of iridoid glycosides was also observed in these species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation according to infrageneric classifications of genus Gentiana. Some secondary metabolites, such as mangiferin, rhodenthoside A-C, isoorientin, isovitexin, amarogentin, and swertianolin would serve as potential chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate Gentianaceae species. Furthermore, the accumulation of the six major metabolites seems to depend on geographical regions in Sect. Monopodiae and Sect. Cruciata. Conclusions The combination of LC–MS/MS and FT-IR would provide some potential evidence on chemotaxonomic studies of Gentianaceae. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 26.02.2016


The establishment of efficient bioconversion, extraction, and isolation processes for the production of phyllodulcin, a potential high intensity sweetener, from sweet hydrangea leaves (Hydrangea macrophylla Thunbergii)

Introduction Hydrangea leaf tea has been traditionally consumed in the far-east Asian countries and is favoured for its distinct minty-sweet taste. Phyllodulcin is identified as a key sweet-tasting compound; it is 400–800 times sweeter than sucrose. However, its extraction has not been well-documented. In an effort to optimise phyllodulcin production, pretreatment processes to accumulate phyllodulcin as a final metabolite in leaf tissue were studied, and an efficient process was established for the extraction and purification of phyllodulcin. Methods Phyllodulcin was structurally identified using an LC/MS system. Hydrangea leaves were processed by either hand rolling or mechanical blending, by exposing them at different drying temperatures (25 and 70°C), and even by inducing bioconversion in leaf tissue. The leaf powder was extracted with various solvents (methanol, ethanol, and water) by soaking at 25°C for 12 h, ultrasonication at 35°C for 1 h or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Extracts were purified with ion exchange resins and purified using preparative HPLC. Results Traditional hand rolling and drying at 70°C significantly increased phyllodulcin accumulation in the leaves. Meanwhile, more phyllodulcin was obtained from the leaves blended mechanically or converted enzymatically compared to traditionally processed ones (P < 0.05). Methanol and ethanol were superior to water as extraction media, and the greatest phyllodulcin yields obtained by ASE, soaking and ultrasonication were 21.28, 21.20 and 19.33 mg/g, respectively, when methanol was used. Highly pure phyllodulcin powder was obtained with a yield of 2.12%. Conclusions This promising result would be beneficial to the industrial utilisation of phyllodulcin as a potential high-intensity sweetener. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 20.02.2016


Survey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in seven varieties of Lappula squarrosa: An alternative source of heart-healthy vegetable oil

Introduction Growing demand for heart-healthy omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is putting stress on wild fish stocks. There is now a compelling need for new and novel sources of non-traditional seed oils containing high stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA and DHA, to reduce this demand. The seed oil of Lappula squarrosa is one of the richest sources of SDA, however, the plant has been found to contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Objective In this study, the PA concentrations of seven varieties (A–G) of Lappula squarrosa were analysed to determine the most suitable varieties for commercial seed oil production. Methods Whilst the clean-up procedure for the PAs in the roots, flowers and leaves was on diatomaceous earth columns and finally analysed with GC-EI-MS, that of the seeds was through SCX-SPE and a more sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method was used in the analysis. Results Altogether six PAs (supinine, amabiline, intermedine, lycopsamine and 3ʹ-acetylintermedine) including one unknown retronecine-type PA were identified with variety C recording the lowest total PA concentration (4.64 mg seneciphylline equivalents (SE)/g dry weight (d.w.)). Besides, the total PA concentrations in the seeds of Lappula squarrosa varieties ranged between 2.88 μg PA/g and 10.36 μg PA/g d.w. Conclusion Based solely on overall PA concentrations and PA distribution, variety D (5.95 mg SE/g d.w.) was found to be a potential candidate for commercial seed oil cultivation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 20.02.2016


TOC

No abstract is available for this article.
Datum: 20.02.2016


Issue Information - JIP

No abstract is available for this article.
Datum: 20.02.2016


A luminescence assay for natural product inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome

Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes a large global burden of disease, with a high mortality rate in healthy and immuno-compromised patients. A number of molecular targets have been identified for treatment of this disease, including the Mtb proteasome. The Mtb proteasome enhances Mtb survival during nitrosative and oxidative stress in the latent, non-replicative phase. Therefore, Mtb proteasome inhibition could help to combat Mtb infections that do not respond to current therapies. Objective To develop and validate a novel biochemical assay to assess Mtb proteasome activity in the presence of organic and aqueous plant test extracts. Method Fluorescence (photoluminescence) and luminescence (chemiluminescence) assays were investigated as potential methods to determine the robustness and repeatability for use in screening natural product extracts for Mtb proteasome inhibitors. Results The fluorescence assay, used widely for Mtb proteasome activity assays, was subject to interference due to the natural fluorescence of compounds in many of the extracts; there is little interference with the luminescence approach. As proof of principle, we used the luminescence assay to screen a small set of plant test extracts. Conclusions Luminescence is the more suitable assay for assay of plant natural product extracts. The sensitivities of the luminescence and fluorescence assays are comparable. A Z′-factor of 0.58 for the luminescence assay makes it suitable for medium-to-high throughput screening efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 18.01.2016


Application of diffusion-edited and solvent suppression 1H-NMR to the direct analysis of markers in valerian-hop liquid herbal products

Introduction – The rising trend to consume herbal products for the treatment and/or prevention of minor ailments together with their chemical and pharmacological complexity means there is an urgent need to develop new approaches to their quality and stability. Objectives – This work looks at the application of one-dimensional diffusion-edited 1H-NMR spectroscopy (1D DOSY) and 1H-NMR with suppression of the ethanol and water signals to the characterisation of quality and stability markers in multi-component herbal medicines/food supplements. Material and Methods – The experiments were performed with commercial tinctures of Valeriana officinalis L. (valerian), expired and non-expired, as well as its combination with Hummulus lupulus L. (hops), which is one of the most popular blends of relaxant herbs. These techniques did not require purification or evaporation of components for the qualitative analysis of the mixture, but only the addition of D2O and TSP. Results – The best diagnostic signals were found at δ 7 ppm (H-11, valerenic acid), δ 4.2 ppm (H-1, hydroxyvalerenic acid) and δ 1.5-1.8 ppm (methyl groups in prenylated moieties, α-acids/prenylated flavones). Conclusion – This work concludes on the potential value of 1D DOSY 1H-NMR to provide additional assurance of quality in complex natural mixtures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 13.01.2016


Flavonoids from the flowers of Impatiens glandulifera Royle isolated by high performance countercurrent chromatography

Introduction Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Balsaminaceae) is an annual herb from the Himalaya region, currently widespread along European river systems and one of the most important neophyte invading plants in Germany. Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals is important for the understanding of its ecological impacts in the process of suppression of indigenous plant species. Objective To investigate the chemical composition of Impatiens glandulifera flowers (IGFs) using high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). Methods The flowers of Impatiens glandulifera were manually separated and extracted with ethanol. LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to characterise the crude extract of IGF. The various flavonoids detected were isolated by HPCCC using of methyl tert-butyl ether–acetonitrile–water (2:2:3, v/v/v). The combination of the data provided by preparative ESI-MS/MS metabolite profiling, LC-ESI-MS/MS, UV-vis and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis was used to elucidate the structures of the isolated compounds. Results HPCCC runs led to the direct isolation of pure dihydromyricetin (ampelopsin), eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (astragalin) and kaempferol-3-O-6ʺ-malonyl-glucoside, as well as the pre-purification of kaempferol-3-O-rhamno-rhamnosyldiglucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), quercetin and kaempferol in a single step. Conclusion This is the first report on the flavonoid composition of the species Impatiens glandulifera. The developed protocol was successfully used to isolate the main flavonoids from the crude extract of IGFs. This combined HPCCC and HPLC procedure could be applied to the fast fractionation and recovery of flavonoid derivatives of other plant extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 11.01.2016


Chemical characterisation of Nigerian red propolis and its biological activity against Trypanosoma Brucei

Introduction A previous study showed the unique character of Nigerian red propolis from Rivers State, Nigeria (RSN), with regards to chemical composition and activity against Trypanosoma brucei in comparison with other African propolis. Objective To carry out fractionation and biological testing of Nigerian propolis in order to isolate compounds with anti-trypanosomal activity. To compare the composition of the RSN propolis with the composition of Brazilian red propolis. Methodology Profiling was carried out using HPLC-UV-ELSD and HPLC-Orbitrap-FTMS on extracts of two samples collected from RSN with data extraction using MZmine software. Isolation was carried out by normal phase and reversed phase MPLC. Elucidation of the compounds with a purity > 95% was performed by 1D/2D NMR HRMS and HRLC-MSn. Results Ten phenolic compounds were isolated or in the case of liquiritigenin partially purified. Data for nine of these correlated with literature reports of known compounds i.e. one isoflavanone, calycosin (1); two flavanones, liquiritigenin (2) and pinocembrin (5); an isoflavan, vestitol (3); a pterocarpan, medicarpin (4); two prenylflavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (7) and 6-prenylnaringenin (8); and two geranyl flavonoids, propolin D (9) and macarangin (10). The tenth was elucidated as a previously undescribed dihydrobenzofuran (6). The isolated compounds were tested against Trypanosoma brucei and displayed moderate to high activity. Some of the compounds tested had similar activity against wild type T. brucei and two strains displaying pentamidine resistance. Conclusion Nigerian propolis from RSN has some similarities with Brazilian red propolis. The propolis displayed anti-trypanosomal activity at a potentially useful level. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 11.12.2015


Analysis of phytochemical variations in dioecious Tinospora cordifolia stems using HPLC/QTOF MS/MS and UPLC/QqQLIT-MS/MS

Introduction The stem of dioecious Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae) is a commonly used traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India having several therapeutic properties. Objective To develop and validate LC-MS methods for the identification and simultaneous quantitation of various secondary metabolites and to study metabolomic variations in the stem of male and female plants. Methods Ethanolic extract of stems were analysed by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS for rapid screening of bioactive phytochemicals. High resolution MS and MS/MS in positive ESI mode were used for structural investigation of secondary metabolites. An UPLC/ESI-QqQLIT-MS/MS method in MRM mode was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five bioactive alkaloids. Results Identification and characterisation of 36 metabolites including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and phytoecdysteroids were performed using LC-MS and MS/MS techniques. The bioactive alkaloids such as jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, isocorydine, palmatine and tetrahydropalmatine were successfully quantified in male and female plants. The mean abundances of magnoflorine jatrorrhizine, and oblongine were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in male plants while mean abundances of tetrahydropalmatine, norcoclaurine, and reticuline were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in female plants. Conclusions Phytochemicals in the stem of male and female Tinospora cordifolia showed significant qualitative and quantitative variations. LC-MS and MS/MS methods can be used to differentiate between male and female plants based on their chemical profiles and quantities of the marker bioactive alkaloids. This chemical composition difference was also evident during vegetative stage when there were no male and female flowers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Datum: 02.12.2015






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