Chlorophyll biosynthesis plays a crucial role in the greening process and survival of etiolated seedlings and yet the mechanism underlying the regulation of this process is poorly understood. Upon light stimulation, NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide. Whereas this represents a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway, the regulation of POR remains largely unknown. Three POR isoforms exist in Arabidopsis thaliana, i.e., PORA, PORB, and PORC. In this study, we identified a transcription factor, REVEILLE1 (RVE1), that binds directly to the PORA promoter through the EE-box cis-regulatory element. Analysis of PORA expression in RVE1 loss-of-function (rve1) and overexpression (RVE1-OX) Arabidopsis plants showed that RVE1 positively regulates the transcription of PORA. We found that Pchlide levels were reduced in RVE1-OX seedlings. Furthermore, rve1 etiolated seedlings had lower greening rates than the wild type when exposed to light, whereas RVE1-OX seedlings had higher greening rates. In addition, when etiolated seedlings were exposed to light, RVE1-OX plants had less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death than the wild type, and had reduced levels of ROS-responsive gene expression. Taken together, our study reveals an important role for RVE1 in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis and promoting seedling greening during early plant growth and development.
Chloroplast development is regulated by many biological processes. However, these processes are not fully understood. Leaf variegation mutants have been used as powerful models to elucidate the genetic network of chloroplast development since the degree of leaf variegation is regulated by developmental and environmental cues. The thylakoid formation 1 (thf1) mutant is unique for its variegation in both leaves and cotyledons. Here, we reported a new suppressor gene of thf1 leaf variegation, designated sot8. Map-based cloning and DNA sequencing results showed that a single nucleotide mutation from G to A was detected in the second exon of the gene encoding the ribosomal protein small subunit 9 (PRPS9) in sot8-1, resulting in an amino acid change and a partial loss of PRPS9 function. However, sot8-1 was unable to rescue the thf1 phenotype in low photosystem II activity (Fv/Fm). In addition, we identified two T-DNA insertion mutants defective in plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs), psrp2-1, and psrp5-1. Genetic analysis showed that knockdown of PSRP5 expression but not PSRP2 expression suppressed leaf variegation. Northern blotting results showed that precursors of plastid rRNAs over-accumulated in prps9-1 and psrp5-1, indicating that mutations in PRPS9 and PSRP5 cause a defect in rRNA processing. Consistently, inhibition of plastid protein synthesis by spectinomycin led to increased levels of plastid rRNA precursors in wild-type plants, suggesting that rRNA processing and plastid ribosomal assembly are coupled. Taken together, our data indicate that downregulating the expression of specific plastid ribosomal proteins suppresses thf1 leaf variegation, and provide new insights into a role of THF1 in plastid gene expression.
To investigate the molecular mechanism of chloroplast biogenesis and development, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (dg169, delayed greening 169) which showed growth retardation and delayed greening phenotype in leaves. Newly emerged chlorotic leaves recovered gradually with leaf development in the mutant, and the mature leaves showed similar phenotype to those of wild-typewild-type plants. Compared with wild-type, the chloroplasts were oval-shaped and smaller and the thylakoid membranes were less abundant in yellow section of young leaves of dg169. In addition, the functions of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) were also impaired. Furthermore, the amount of core subunits of PSII and PSI, as well as PSII and PSI complexes reduced in yellow section of young leaves of dg169. Map-based positional cloning identified that phenotype of dg169 was attributed to a point mutation of ATase2 which converts the conserved Ile-155 residue to Asn. ATase2 catalyzes the first step of de novo purine biosynthesis. This mutation resulted in impaired purine synthesis and a significant decrease in ATP, ADP, GTP and GDP contents. The analysis of ATase2-GFP protein fusion showed that ATase2 was localized to nucleoid of chloroplasts. Our results further demonstrated that the levels of PEP-dependent transcripts in yellow section of young leaves of dg169 were decreased while NEP-dependent and both PEP- and NEP-dependent transcripts and chloroplast DNA replications were increased. The results in this study suggest that ATase2 plays an essential role in early chloroplast development through maintaining PEP function.
The proteome of the photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been extensively analyzed in the last 15 years for the purpose of identifying proteins specifically expressed in subcellular compartments or differentially expressed in different environmental or internal conditions. This review summarizes the progress achieved so far with the emphasis on the impact of different techniques, both in sample preparation and protein identification, on the increasing coverage of proteome identification. In addition, this review evaluates the current completeness of proteome identification, and provides insights on the potential factors that could affect the complete identification of the Synechocystis proteome.
Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H218O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides.
Photosystem II (PSII) undergoes frequent damage owing to the demanding electron transfer chemistry it performs. To sustain photosynthetic activity, damaged PSII undergoes a complex repair cycle consisting of many transient intermediate complexes. By purifying PSII from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using a histidine-tag on the PsbQ protein, a lumenal extrinsic subunit, a novel PSII assembly intermediate was isolated in addition to the mature PSII complex. This new complex, which we refer to as PSII-Q4, contained four copies of the PsbQ protein per PSII monomer, instead of the expected one copy. In addition, PSII-Q4 lacked two other lumenal extrinsic proteins, PsbU and PsbV, which are present in the mature PSII complex. We suggest that PSII-Q4 is a late PSII assembly intermediate that is formed just before the binding of PsbU and PsbV, and we incorporate these results into an updated model of PSII assembly.
The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is the main antenna complex of photosystem II (PSII). Plants change their LHCII content depending on the light environment. Under high-light conditions, the content of LHCII should decrease because over-excitation damages the photosystem. Chlorophyll b is indispensable for accumulating LHCII, and chlorophyll b degradation induces LHCII degradation. Chlorophyll b degradation is initiated by chlorophyll b reductase (CBR). In land plants, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1) and NYC1-Like (NOL) are isozymes of CBR. We analyzed these mutants to determine their functions under high-light conditions. During high-light treatment, the chlorophyll a/b ratio was stable in the wild-type (WT) and nol plants, and the LHCII content decreased in WT plants. The chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased in the nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants, and a substantial degree of LHCII was retained in nyc1/nol plants after the high-light treatment. These results demonstrate that NYC1 degrades the chlorophyll b on LHCII under high-light conditions, thus decreasing the LHCII content. After the high-light treatment, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII photochemistry was lower in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants than in WT and nol plants. A larger light-harvesting system would damage PSII in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the leaves indicated that photosystem I was also damaged by the excess LHCII in nyc1/nol plants. These observations suggest that chlorophyll b degradation by NYC1 is the initial reaction for the optimization of the light-harvesting capacity under high-light conditions.
Light energy drives photosynthesis, but it simultaneously inactivates photosynthetic mechanisms. A major target site of photo-damage is photosystem II (PSII). It further targets one reaction center protein, D1, which is maintained efficiently by the PSII repair cycle. Two proteases, FtsH and Deg, are known to contribute to this process, respectively, by efficient degradation of photo-damaged D1 protein processively and endoproteolytically. This study tested whether the D1 cleavage accomplished by these proteases is affected by different monochromic lights such as blue and red light-emitting-diode light sources, remaining mindful that the use of these lights distinguishes the current models for photoinhibition: the excess-energy model and the two-step model. It is noteworthy that in the two-step model, primary damage results from the absorption of light energy in the Mn-cluster, which can be enhanced by a blue rather than a red light source. Results showed that blue and red lights affect D1 degradation differently. One prominent finding was that D1 fragmentation that is specifically generated by luminal Deg proteases was enhanced by blue light but not by red light in the mutant lacking FtsH2. Although circumstantial, this evidence supports a two-step model of PSII photo-damage. We infer that enhanced D1 fragmentation by luminal Deg proteases is a response to primary damage at the Mn-cluster.
It has been shown by Khorobrykh et al. (Biochemistry (Moscow) 67:683–688, 2002); Yanykin et al. (Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:516–523, 2010); Khorobrykh et al. (Biochemistry 50:10658–10665, 2011) that Mn-depleted photosystem II (PSII) membrane fragments are characterized by an enhanced oxygen photoconsumption on the donor side of PSII which is accompanied with hydroperoxide formation and it was suggested that the events are related to the oxidative photoinhibition of PSII. Experimental confirmation of this suggestion is presented in this work. The degree of photoinhibition was determined by the loss of the capability of exogenous electron donors (Mn2+ or sodium ascorbate) to the reactivation of electron transport [measured by the light-induced changes of chlorophyll fluorescence yield (?F)] in Mn-depleted PSII membranes. The transition from anaerobic conditions to aerobic ones significantly activated photoinhibition of Mn-depleted PSII membranes both in the absence and in the presence of exogenous electron acceptor, ferricyanide. The photoinhibition of Mn-depleted PSII membranes was suppressed upon the addition of exogenous electron donors (Mn2+, diphenylcarbazide, and ferrocyanide). The addition of superoxide dismutase did not affect the photoinhibition of Mn-depleted PSII membranes. It is concluded that the interaction of molecular oxygen (rather than superoxide anion radical formed on the acceptor side of PSII) with the oxidized components of the donor side of PSII reflects the involvement of O2 in the donor-side photoinhibition of Mn-depleted PSII membranes.
The major light-harvesting pigment protein complex (fucoxanthin–chlorophyll-binding protein complex; FCP) was purified from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, by mild solubilization followed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and then characterized. The dynamic light scattering measurement showed unimodality, indicating that the complex was highly purified. The amount of chlorophyll a (Chl a) bound to the purified FCP accounted for more than 60 % of total cellular Chl a. The complex was composed of three abundant polypeptides, although there are nearly 30 FCP-related genes. The two major components were identified as Fcp3 (Lhcf3)- and Fcp4 (Lhcf4)-equivalent proteins based on their internal amino acid sequences and a two-dimensional isoelectric focusing electrophoresis analysis developed in this work. Compared with the thylakoids, the FCP complex showed higher contents of fucoxanthin and chlorophyll c but lower contents of the xanthophyll cycle pigments diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. Fluorescence excitation spectra analyses indicated that light harvesting, rather than photosystem protection, is the major function of the purified FCP complex, which is associated with more than 60 % of total cellular Chl a. These findings suggest that the huge amount of Chl bound to the FCP complex composed of Lhcf3, Lhcf4, and an unidentified minor protein has a light-harvesting function to allow efficient photosynthesis under the dim-light conditions in the ocean.
Chlorophyll a fluorescence of flag leaves in a super-high-yielding hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) LYPJ, and a traditional hybrid rice SY63 cultivar with lower grain yield, which were grown in the field, were investigated from emergence through senescence of flag leaves. As the flag leaf matured, there was an increasing trend in photosynthetic parameters such as quantum efficiency of primary photochemistry (\(\varphi\)Po) and efficiency of electron transport from PS II to PS I (?Eo). The overall photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) was significantly higher in the high-yielding LYPJ compared to SY63 during the entire reproductive stage of the plant, the same to MDA content. However, \(\varphi\)Po(=FV/FM), an indicator of the primary photochemistry of the flag leaf, did not display significant changes with leaf age and was not significantly different between the two cultivars, suggesting that PIABS is a more sensitive parameter than \(\varphi\)Po (=FV/FM) during leaf age for distinguishing between cultivars differing in yield.
The plastid accD gene encodes one subunit of a multimeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase that is required for fatty acid biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the accD gene is transcribed by the nuclear-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase, and the accumulation of accD transcripts is subjected to a dynamic pattern during chloroplast development. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of accD expression remain unknown. Here, we showed that the inefficient transcription termination of rbcL due to the absence of RHON1 impaired the developmental profile of accD, resulting in the constitutive expression of accD during chloroplast development. Moreover, the accumulation of accD transcripts accordingly resulted in an increase in accD protein levels, suggesting that transcript abundance is critical for accD gene production. Our study demonstrates that the interplay between accD and upstream rbcL regulates the expression of accD and highlights the significance of transcriptional regulation in plastid gene expression in higher plants.
The large size complex of cyanobacterial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complex (NDH-1L) plays crucial role in a variety of bioenergetic reactions such as respiration and cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. Although the complex has been isolated and identified, its biochemical function still remains to be clarified. Here, we highly purified the NDH-1L complex from the cells of Thermosynechococcus elongatus by Ni2+ affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified NDH-1L complex has an apparent total molecular mass of approximately 500 kDa. 14 known subunits were identified by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting, including the NdhS subunit containing ferredoxin (Fd)-docking site domain. Surface plasmon resonance measurement demonstrates that the NDH-1L complex could bind to Fd with the binding constant (KD) of 59 µM. Yeast two-hybrid system assay further confirmed the interaction of Fd with NdhS and indicated that NdhH is involved in the interaction. Our results provide direct biochemical evidence that the cyanobacterial NDH-1 complex catalyzes the electron transport from reduced Fd to plastoquinone via NdhS and NdhH.
The photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate, Hill reaction activity of seedlings and photosynthetic parameter, Pn–Ci curve and some source-sink metabolism-related enzyme activities, and substance content of flag leaves were measured by using two wheat near isogenic lines with significant differences in the photosynthetic rate of the 154 (high photosynthetic rate) and 212 (low photosynthetic rate) lines as materials. The results showed that the maximal carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax) and Hill reaction activity were higher in line 154 than that of line 212. The Pn in flag leaves of line 154 was significantly higher than that of line 212 during the anthesis to grain-filling stage. Higher leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity, grain sucrose synthase activity, and grain ADPG pyrophosphorylase activity ensured that the photosynthate of line 154 could be transported to grains and translated into starch in a timely and effective manner, which also contributed to the maintenance of its high photosynthetic rate. Eventually, all of these factors of line 154 resulted in its higher grain yield compared with the low photosynthetic rate of line 212.
Oxygenic photosynthesis requires chlorophyll (Chl) for the absorption of light energy, and charge separation in the reaction center of photosystem I and II, to feed electrons into the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Chl is bound to different Chl-binding proteins assembled in the core complexes of the two photosystems and their peripheral light-harvesting antenna complexes. The structure of the photosynthetic protein complexes has been elucidated, but mechanisms of their biogenesis are in most instances unknown. These processes involve not only the assembly of interacting proteins, but also the functional integration of pigments and other cofactors. As a precondition for the association of Chl with the Chl-binding proteins in both photosystems, the synthesis of the apoproteins is synchronized with Chl biosynthesis. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge on the posttranslational organization of Chl biosynthesis and current attempts to envision the proceedings of the successive synthesis and integration of Chl into Chl-binding proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Potential auxiliary factors, contributing to the control and organization of Chl biosynthesis and the association of Chl with the Chl-binding proteins during their integration into photosynthetic complexes, are discussed in this review.
CP43 is a chlorophyll-binding protein, which acts as a conduit for the excitation energy transfer. The thermal stability of apo-CP43 was studied by intrinsic fluorescence, exogenous ANS fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Under heat treatment, the structure of apo-CP43 changed and existed transition state occurred between 56 and 62 °C by the intrinsic, exogenous ANS fluorescence and the analysis of hydrophobicity. Besides, the isosbestic point of the sigmoidal curve was 58.10 ± 1.02 °C by calculating ?-helix transition and the Tm was 56.45 ± 0.52 and 55.59 ± 0.68 °C by calculating the unfolded fraction of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence, respectively. During the process of unfolding, the hydrophobic structure of C-terminal segment firstly started to expose at 40 °C, and then the hydrophobic cluster adjacent to the N-terminal segment also gradually exposed to hydrophilic environment with increasing temperature. Our results indicated that heat treatment, especially above 40 °C, has an important impact on the structural stability of apo-CP43.
Plants subjected to abiotic stresses such as extreme high and low temperatures, drought or salinity, often exhibit decreased vegetative growth and reduced reproductive capabilities. This is often associated with decreased photosynthesis via an increase in photoinhibition, and accompanied by rapid changes in endogenous levels of stress-related hormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene. However, certain plant species and/or genotypes exhibit greater tolerance to abiotic stress because they are capable of accumulating endogenous levels of the zwitterionic osmolyte—glycinebetaine (GB). The accumulation of GB via natural production, exogenous application or genetic engineering, enhances plant osmoregulation and thus increases abiotic stress tolerance. The final steps of GB biosynthesis occur in chloroplasts where GB has been shown to play a key role in increasing the protection of soluble stromal and lumenal enzymes, lipids and proteins, of the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, we suggest that the stress-induced GB biosynthesis pathway may well serve as an additional or alternative biochemical sink, one which consumes excess photosynthesis-generated electrons, thus protecting photosynthetic apparatus from overreduction. Glycinebetaine biosynthesis in chloroplasts is up-regulated by increases in endogenous ABA or SA levels. In this review, we propose and discuss a model describing the close interaction and synergistic physiological effects of GB and ABA in the process of cold acclimation of higher plants.
We synthesized manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles (diameter <100 nm) by the reaction of KMnO4 with gold nanoparticles under hydrothermal conditions. In this green method Mn oxide is deposited on the gold nanoparticles. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these compounds in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant were studied. The results show that these compounds are good catalysts toward water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1.0 ± 0.1 (mmol O2/(mol Mn·s)). A comparison with other previously reported Mn oxides and important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of Mn oxides is also discussed.
Posted on 1 December 2015 | 1:00 am
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