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# Photosynthesis Research - Current Research Articles

## Current research articles: Photosynthesis

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... is an international journal open to papers of merit dealing with both basic and applied aspects of photosynthesis.

# Current articles of the journal:

## Slr2019, lipid A transporter homolog, is essential for acidic tolerance in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

### Abstract

Living organisms must defend themselves against various environmental stresses. Extracellular polysaccharide-producing cells exhibit enhanced tolerance toward adverse environmental stress. In Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Synechocystis), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may play a role in this protection. To examine the relationship between stress tolerance of Synechocystis and LPS, we focused on Slr2019 because Slr2019 is homologous to MsbA in Escherichia coli, which is related to LPS synthesis. First, to obtain a defective mutant of LPS, we constructed the slr2019 insertion mutant (slr2019) strain. Sodium deoxycholate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that slr2019 strain did not synthesize normal LPS. Second, to clarify the participation of LPS in acid tolerance, wild type (WT) and slr2019 strain were grown under acid stress; slr2019 strain growth was significantly weaker than WT growth. Third, to examine influences on stress tolerance, slr2019 strain was grown under various stresses. Under salinity and temperature stress, slr2019 strain grew significantly slower than WT. To confirm cell morphology, cell shape and envelope of slr2019 strain were observed by transmission electron microscopy; slr2019 cells contained more electron-transparent bodies than WT cells. Finally, to confirm whether electron-transparent bodies are poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), slr2019 strain was stained with Nile Blue A, a PHB detector, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. The PHB granule content ratio of WT and slr2019 strain grown at BG-11 pH 8.0 was each 7.18 and 8.41 %. At pH 6.0, the PHB granule content ratio of WT and slr2019 strain was 2.99 and 2.60 %. However, the PHB granule content ratio of WT and slr2019 strain grown at BG-11N-reduced was 10.82 and 0.56 %. Because slr2019 strain significantly decreased PHB under BG-11N-reduced compared with WT, LPS synthesis may be related to PHB under particular conditions. These results indicated that Slr2019 is necessary for Synechocystis survival in various stresses.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Energy transfer in Anabaena variabilis filaments under nitrogen depletion, studied by time-resolved fluorescence

### Abstract

Some filamentous cyanobacteria (including Anabaena) differentiate into heterocysts under nitrogen-depleted conditions. During differentiation, the phycobiliproteins and photosystem II in the heterocysts are gradually degraded. Nitrogen depletion induces changes in the pigment composition of both vegetative cells and heterocysts, which affect the excitation energy transfer processes. To investigate the changes in excitation energy transfer processes of Anabaena variabilis filaments grown in standard medium (BG11) and a nitrogen-free medium (BG110), we measured their steady-state absorption spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) at 77 K. TRFS were measured with a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting system. The pigment compositions of the filaments grown in BG110 changed throughout the growth period; the relative phycocyanin levels monotonically decreased, whereas the relative carotenoid (Car) levels decreased and then recovered to their initial value (at day 0), with formation of lower-energy Cars. Nitrogen starvation also altered the fluorescence kinetics of PSI; the fluorescence maximum of TRFS immediately after excitation occurred at 735, 740, and 730 nm after 4, 8, and 15 days growth in BG110, respectively. Based on these results, we discuss the excitation energy transfer dynamics of A. variabilis filaments under the nitrogen-depleted condition throughout the growth period.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## The L(M196)H mutation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center results in new electrostatic interactions

### Abstract

New histidine residue was introduced in M196 position in the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in order to alter polarity of the BChl dimer’s protein environment and to study how it affects properties and structure of the primary electron donor P. It was shown that in the absorption spectrum of the mutant RC the 6 nm red shift of the Q Y P band was observed together with considerable decrease of its amplitude. The mid-point potential of P/P + in the mutant RC was increased by +65 (±15) mV as compared to the E m P/P + value in the wild-type RC suggesting that the mutation resulted in new pigment–protein interactions. Crystal structure of RC L(M196)H determined at 2.4 Å resolution implies that BChl ? ? and introduced histidine-M196 organize new electrostatic contact that may be specified either as ?–? staking or as hydrogen–? interaction. Besides, the structure of the mutants RC shows that His-M196 apparently became involved in hydrogen bond network existing in BChl ? ? vicinity that may favor stability of the mutant RC.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae , probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

### Abstract

Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment–protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Differences in energy transfer of a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, grown in different cultivation media

### Abstract

Currently, cyanobacteria are regarded as potential biofuel sources. Large-scale cultivation of cyanobacteria in seawater is of particular interest because seawater is a low-cost medium. In the present study, we examined differences in light-harvesting and energy transfer processes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown in different cultivation media, namely modified A medium (the optimal growth medium for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and f/2 (a seawater medium). The concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions were varied in both media. Higher nitrate ion and/or phosphate ion concentrations yielded high relative content of phycobilisome. The cultivation medium influenced the energy transfers within phycobilisome, from phycobilisome to photosystems, within photosystem II, and from photosystem II to photosystem I. We suggest that the medium also affects charge recombination at the photosystem II reaction center and formation of a chlorophyll-containing complex.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Energy transfer in the chlorophyll f -containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris , analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies

### Abstract

We prepared thylakoid membranes from Halomicronema hongdechloris cells grown under white fluorescent light or light from far-red (740 nm) light-emitting diodes, and observed their energy-transfer processes shortly after light excitation. Excitation–relaxation processes were examined by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Two time-resolved fluorescence techniques were used: time-correlated single photon counting and fluorescence up-conversion methods. The thylakoids from the cells grown under white light contained chlorophyll (Chl) a of different energies, but were devoid of Chl f. At room temperature, the excitation energy was equilibrated among the Chl a pools with a time constant of 6.6 ps. Conversely, the thylakoids from the cells grown under far-red light possessed both Chl a and Chl f. Two energy-transfer pathways from Chl a to Chl f were identified with time constants of 1.3 and 5.0 ps, and the excitation energy was equilibrated between the Chl a and Chl f pools at room temperature. We also examined the energy-transfer pathways from phycobilisome to the two photosystems under white-light cultivation.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Cyanofuels: biofuels from cyanobacteria. Reality and perspectives

### Abstract

Cyanobacteria are represented by a diverse group of microorganisms that, by virtue of being a part of marine and freshwater phytoplankton, significantly contribute to the fixation of atmospheric carbon via photosynthesis. It is assumed that ancient cyanobacteria participated in the formation of earth’s oil deposits. Biomass of modern cyanobacteria may be converted into bio-oil by pyrolysis. Modern cyanobacteria grow fast; they do not compete for agricultural lands and resources; they efficiently convert excessive amounts of CO2 into biomass, thus participating in both carbon fixation and organic chemical production. Many cyanobacterial species are easier to genetically manipulate than eukaryotic algae and other photosynthetic organisms. Thus, the cyanobacterial photosynthesis may be directed to produce carbohydrates, fatty acids, or alcohols as renewable sources of biofuels. Here we review the recent achievements in the developments and production of cyanofuels—biofuels produced from cyanobacterial biomass.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Correlation between pH dependence of O 2 evolution and sensitivity of Mn cations in the oxygen-evolving complex to exogenous reductants

### Abstract

Effects of pH, Ca2+, and Cl? ions on the extraction of Mn cations from oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in Ca-depleted photosystem II (PSII(-Ca)) by exogenous reductants hydroquinone (H2Q) and H2O2 were studied. Two of 4 Mn cations are released by H2Q and H2O2 at pHs 5.7, 6.5, and 7.5, and their extraction does not depend on the presence of Ca2+ and Cl? ions. One of Mn cations (“resistant” Mn cation) cannot be extracted by H2Q and H2O2 at any pH. Extraction of 4th Mn ion (“flexible” Mn cation) is sensitive to pH, Ca2+, and Cl?. This Mn cation is released by reductants at pH 6.5 but not at pHs 5.7 and 7.5. A pH dependence curve of the oxygen-evolving activity in PSII(-Ca) membranes (in the presence of exogenous Ca2+) has a bell-shaped form with the maximum at pH 6.5. Thus, the increase in the resistance of flexible Mn cation in OEC to the action of reductants at acidic and alkaline pHs coincides with the decrease in oxygen evolution activity at these pHs. Exogenous Ca2+ protects the extraction of flexible Mn cation at pH 6.5. High concentration of Cl? anions (100 mM) shifts the pH optimum of oxygen evolution to alkaline region (around pH 7.5), while the pH of flexible Mn extraction is also shifted to alkaline pH. This result suggests that flexible Mn cation plays a key role in the water-splitting reaction. The obtained results also demonstrate that only one Mn cation in Mn4 cluster is under strong control of calcium. The change in the flexible Mn cation resistance to exogenous reductants in the presence of Ca2+ suggests that Ca2+ can control the redox potential of this cation.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Replacement of Tyr50 stacked on the si -face of the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin adenine dinucleotide prosthetic group modulates Bacillus subtilis ferredoxin-NADP + oxidoreductase activity toward NADPH

### Abstract

Ferredoxin-NAD(P)+ oxidoreductases ([EC 1.18.1.2], [EC 1.18.1.3], FNRs) from green sulfur bacteria, purple non-sulfur bacteria and most of Firmicutes, such as Bacillus subtilis (BsFNR) are homo-dimeric flavoproteins homologous to bacterial NADPH-thioredoxin reductase. These FNRs contain two unique aromatic residues stacked on the si- and re-face of the isoalloxazine ring moiety of the FAD prosthetic group whose configurations are often found among other types of flavoproteins including plant-type FNR and flavodoxin, but not in bacterial NADPH-thioredoxin reductase. To investigate the role of the si-face Tyr50 residue in BsFNR, we replaced Tyr50 with Gly, Ser, and Trp and examined its spectroscopic properties and enzymatic activities in the presence of NADPH and ferredoxin (Fd) from B. subtilis (BsFd). The replacement of Tyr50 to Gly (Y50G), Ser (Y50S), and Trp (Y50W) in BsFNR resulted in a blue shift of the FAD transition bands. The Y50G and Y50S mutations enhanced the FAD fluorescence emission, whereas those of the wild type and Y50W mutant were quenched. All three mutants decreased thermal stabilities compared to wild type. Using a diaphorase assay, the k cat values for the Y50G and Y50S mutants in the presence of NADPH and ferricyanide were decreased to less than 5 % of the wild type activity. The Y50W mutant retained approximately 20 % reactivity in the diaphorase assay and BsFd-dependent cytochrome c reduction assay relative to wild type. The present results suggest that Tyr50 modulates the electronic properties and positioning of the prosthetic group.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Features of temporal behavior of fluorescence recovery in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

### Abstract

Under high photon flux density of solar radiation, the photosynthetic apparatus can be damaged. To prevent this photodestruction, cyanobacteria developed special mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitation energy in phycobilisomes. In Synechocystis, NPQ is triggered by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which is sensitive to blue-green illumination allowing it to bind to the phycobilisome reducing the flow of energy to the photosystems. Consequent decoupling of OCP and recovery of phycobilisome fluorescence in vivo is controlled by the so called fluorescence recovery protein (FRP). In this work, the role of the phycobilisome core components, apcD and apcF, in non-photochemical quenching and subsequent fluorescence recovery in the phycobilisomes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 has been investigated. Using a single photon counting technique, we have registered fluorescence decay spectra with picosecond time resolution during fluorescence recovery. In order to estimate the activation energy for the photocycle, spectroscopic studies in dependency on the temperature from 5 to 45 °C have been performed. It was found that fluorescence quenching and recovery were strongly temperature dependent for all strains exhibiting characteristic non-linear time courses. The rise of the fluorescence intensity during fluorescence recovery after NPQ can be completely described by the increase of the phycobilisome core fluorescence lifetime. It was shown that fluorescence recovery of apcD- and apcF-deficient mutants is characterized by a significantly lower activation energy barrier compared to wild type. This phenomenon indicates that apcD and apcF gene products may be required for proper interaction of FRP and OCP coupled to the phycobilisome core. In addition, we found that the rate of fluorescence recovery decreases with an increase of the non-photochemical quenching amplitude, probably due to depletion of substrate for the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by FRP.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Sll0751 and Sll1041 are involved in acid stress tolerance in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

### Abstract

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a multi-subunit membrane protein complex involved in lipid transport and acid stress tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This organism has two sets of three ABC transporter subunits: Slr1045 and Slr1344, Sll0751 and Sll1002, and Sll1001 and Sll1041. We previously found that Slr1045 is essential for survival under acid stress condition (Tahara et al. 2012). In the present study, we examined the participation of other ABC transporter subunits in acid stress tolerance using a deletion mutant series of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Although Slr1344 is highly homologous to Slr1045, ?slr1344 cells were not susceptible to acid stress. ?sll0751 and ?sll1041 cells displayed acid stress sensitivity, whereas ?sll1001/sll1002 double mutant cells grew normally. Under high- and low-temperature stress conditions, the growth rate of ?slr1344 and ?sll1001/sll1002 cells did not differ from WT cells, whereas ?sll0751 and ?sll1041 cells showed significant growth retardation, as previously observed in ?slr1045 cells. Moreover, nile red staining showed more lipid accumulation in ?slr1045, ?sll0751, and ?sll1041 cells than in WT cells. These results suggest that Slr1045, Sll0751, and Sll1041 function together as a lipid transport complex in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and are essential for growth under various stresses.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Low-temperature (77 K) phosphorescence of triplet chlorophyll in isolated reaction centers of photosystem II

### Abstract

Phosphorescence characterized by the main emission band at 952 ± 1 nm (1.30 eV), the lifetime of 1.5 ± 0.1 ms and the quantum yield nearly equal to that for monomeric chlorophyll a in aqueous detergent dispersions, has been detected in isolated reaction centers (RCs) of spinach photosystem II at 77 K. The excitation spectrum shows maxima corresponding to absorption bands of chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and ?-carotene. The phosphorescence intensity strongly depends upon the redox state of RCs. The data suggest that the phosphorescence signal originates from the chlorophyll triplet state populated via charge recombination in the radical pair $${\rm P}_{680}^{+}{\rm Pheo}_{{\rm D}1}^{-}.$$

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization

### Abstract

In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100 µM CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3 h till 72 h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24 h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35 % decrease to 72 h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Hydrogen peroxide generation and antioxidant enzyme activities in the leaves and roots of wheat cultivars subjected to long-term soil drought stress

### Abstract

The dynamics of the activity of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and benzidine peroxidase, as well as the level of hydrogen peroxide in the vegetative organs of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars was studied under long-term soil drought conditions. It was established that hydrogen peroxide generation occurred at early stages of stress in the tolerant variety Barakatli-95, whereas in the susceptible variety Garagylchyg-2 its significant amounts were accumulated only at later stages. Garagylchyg-2 shows a larger reduction of photochemical activity of PS II in both genotypes at all stages of ontogenesis under drought stress than Barakatli-95. The highest activity of catalase which plays a leading role in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide was observed in the leaves and roots of the drought-tolerant variety Barakatli-95. Despite the fact that the protection system also includes peroxidases, the activity of these enzymes even after synthesis of their new portions is substantially lower compared with catalase. Native PAGE electrophoresis revealed the presence of one isoform of CAT, seven isoforms of APX, three isoforms of GPO, and three isoforms of BPO in the leaves, and also three isoforms of CAT, four isoforms of APX, two isoforms of GPO, and six isoforms of BPO in the roots of wheat. One isoform of CAT was found in the roots when water supply was normal and three isoforms were observed under drought conditions. Stress associated with long-term soil drought in the roots of wheat has led to an increase in the heterogeneity due to the formation of two new sedentary forms of catalase: CAT2 and CAT3.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Modeling of the redox state dynamics in photosystem II of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick cells and leaves of spinach and Arabidopsis thaliana from single flash-induced fluorescence quantum yield changes on the 100 ns–10 s time scale

### Abstract

The time courses of the photosystem II (PSII) redox states were analyzed with a model scheme supposing a fraction of 11–25 % semiquinone (with reduced $${\text{Q}}_{\text{B}}^{ - }$$ ) RCs in the dark. Patterns of single flash-induced transient fluorescence yield (SFITFY) measured for leaves (spinach and Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana) and the thermophilic alga Chlorella (C.) pyrenoidosa Chick (Steffen et al. Biochemistry 44:3123?3132, 2005; Belyaeva et al. Photosynth Res 98:105–119, 2008, Plant Physiol Biochem 77:49–59, 2014) were fitted with the PSII model. The simulations show that at high-light conditions the flash generated triplet carotenoid 3Car(t) population is the main NPQ regulator decaying in the time interval of 6–8 ?s. So the SFITFY increase up to the maximum level $$F_{\text{m}}^{\text{STF}}$$ /F 0 (at ~50 ?s) depends mainly on the flash energy. Transient electron redistributions on the RC redox cofactors were displayed to explain the SFITFY measured by weak light pulses during the PSII relaxation by electron transfer (ET) steps and coupled proton transfer on both the donor and the acceptor side of the PSII. The contribution of non-radiative charge recombination was taken into account. Analytical expressions for the laser flash, the 3Car(t) decay and the work of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) were used to improve the modeled P680+ reduction by YZ in the state S 1 of the WOC. All parameter values were compared between spinach, A. thaliana leaves and C. pyrenoidosa alga cells and at different laser flash energies. ET from $${\text{Q}}_{\text{A}}^{ - } \;{\text{to}}\;{\text{Q}}_{\text{B}}^{( - )}$$ slower in alga as compared to leaf samples was elucidated by the dynamics of $${\text{Q}}_{\text{A}}^{ - } ,{\text{ Q}}_{\text{B}}^{ - }$$ fractions to fit SFITFY data. Low membrane energization after the 10 ns single turnover flash was modeled: the ??(t) amplitude (20 mV) is found to be about 5-fold smaller than under the continuous light induction; the time-independent lumen pHL, stroma pHS are fitted close to dark estimates. Depending on the flash energy used at 1.4, 4, 100 % the pHS in stroma is fitted to 7.3, 7.4, and 7.7, respectively. The biggest ?pH difference between stroma and lumen was found to be 1.2, thus pH- dependent NPQ was not considered.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Spectral exhibition of electron-vibrational relaxation in P* state of Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers

### Abstract

Electron-vibrational relaxation in the excited state of the primary electron donor, bacteriochlorophyll dimer P, in the reaction centers (RCs) of purple photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides is modeled. A multimode model of three states (i.e., the ground state Pg, initially excited P1*, and relaxed excited P2*) is used to calculate the incoherent dynamics of the difference (?A) spectra on a femtosecond timescale for the YM210 W mutant RCs. The relaxation processes are described by the step-ladder model. The model shows that the electron-vibrational relaxation in the excited state of P is visualized by the transient red shift of the stimulated emission from P*. The dynamics of this shift is observed as a change in the ?A spectrum shape in its red-most part, within a few hundreds of femtoseconds after excitation. As a result, an initial rise in the red-side ?A kinetics is delayed with respect to the blue-side kinetics. The time constant of the P1* ? P2* electronic relaxation (54 fs) and the Pg, P1*, and P2* vibrational relaxations (120 fs), used in the model, provided the best fit of the experimental time-resolved ?A spectra and kinetics at 90 and 293 K. The possible nature of the P1* ? P2* electronic relaxation is discussed.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## My journey in photosynthesis research

### Abstract

At the invitation of Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev, I provide here a brief autobiography for this special issue that recognizes my service and research for the larger international community of photosynthesis research.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Orientation of B798 BChl a Q y transition dipoles in Chloroflexus aurantiacus chlorosomes: polarized transient absorption spectroscopy studies

### Abstract

Isotropic and anisotropic pump-probe spectra of Cfx. aurantiacus chlorosomes were measured on the fs-through ps-time scales for the B798 BChl a Q y band upon direct excitation of the B798 band at T = 293 K and T = 90 K. Upon direct excitation of the B798 band, the anisotropy parameter value r(?) was constant within the whole BChl a Q y band at any delay time at both temperatures. The value of the anisotropy parameter r decayed from r = 0.4 at both temperatures (at 200 fs delay time after excitation) to the steady-state values r = 0.1 at T = 293 K and to r = 0.09 at T = 90 K (at 30 ÷ 100 ps delay time after excitation). The results were considered within the framework of the model of uniaxial orientation distribution of BChl-a transition dipoles within a single Cfx. aurantiacus chlorosome. This implies that the B798 BChl a Q y transition dipoles, randomly distributed around the normal to the baseplate plane, form the angle ? with the plane. For this model, the theoretical dependence of the steady-state anisotropy parameter r on the angle ? was derived. According to the theoretical dependence r(?), the angle ? corresponding to the experimental steady-state value r = 0.1 at T = 293 K was found to equal 55°. As the temperature drops to 90 K, the angle ? decreases to 54°.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## In honor of Vladimir A. Shuvalov: light energy conversion in photosynthesis

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am

## Primary electron transfer processes in photosynthetic reaction centers from oxygenic organisms

### Abstract

This minireview is written in honor of Vladimir A. Shuvalov, a pioneer in the area of primary photochemistry of both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosyntheses (See a News Report: Allakhverdiev et al. 2014). In the present paper, we describe the current state of the formation of the primary and secondary ion–radical pairs within photosystems (PS) II and I in oxygenic organisms. Spectral-kinetic studies of primary events in PS II and PS I, upon excitation by ~20 fs laser pulses, are now available and reviewed here; for PS II, excitation was centered at 710 nm, and for PS I, it was at 720 nm. In PS I, conditions were chosen to maximally increase the relative contribution of the direct excitation of the reaction center (RC) in order to separate the kinetics of the primary steps of charge separation in the RC from that of the excitation energy transfer in the antenna. Our results suggest that the sequence of the primary electron transfer reactions is P680 ? ChlD1 ? PheD1 ? QA (PS II) and P700 ? A 0A/A 0B ? A 1A/A 1B (PS I). However, alternate routes of charge separation in PS II, under different excitation conditions, are not ruled out.

Posted on 1 August 2015 | 2:00 am