Photosynthesis Research

Current research articles.


The journal Photosynthesis Research is an international journal dealing with both basic and applied aspects of photosynthesis. The journal publishes research at all levels of plant organization: molecular, subcellular, cellular, whole plant, canopy, ecosystem and global.

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Photosynthesis Research - Abstracts



A simple indicator for non-destructive estimation of the violaxanthin cycle pigment content in leaves

Abstract

The photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants acclimates to irradiance. Among the features which are changing is the pool size of the pigments belonging to the violaxanthin cycle, in which zeaxanthin is formed. In high light grown leaves, the violaxanthin cycle pool size is up to five times larger than in low light. The changes are reversible on a time scale of several days. Since it has been published that violaxanthin cycle pigments do not transfer absorbed energy to chlorophyll, we hypothesized that excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence in the blue spectral region may be reduced in high light-acclimated leaves. Fluorescence excitation spectra of leaves of the Arabidopsis thaliana tt3 mutant showed strong differences between high and low light-acclimated plants from 430 to 520 nm. The resulting difference spectrum was similar to carotenoids but shifted by about 20 nm to higher wavelengths. A good correlation was observed between the fluorescence excitation ratio F 470/F 660 and the violaxanthin cycle pool size when leaves were acclimated to a range of irradiances. In parallel to the decline of F 470/F 660 with high light acclimation also the quantum yield of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in blue light decreased. The data confirm that violaxanthin cycle carotenoids do not transfer absorbed light to chlorophyll. It is proposed to use the ratio F 470/F 660 as an indicator for the light acclimation status of the chloroplasts in a leaf.


Datum: 01.05.2016


The carbon (formerly dark) reactions of photosynthesis

Abstract

In this brief account, I describe the background for dividing photosynthesis into “light” and “dark” reactions and show how this concept changed to “light” and “carbon” reactions as science in the field advanced.


Datum: 01.05.2016


The effect of medium viscosity on kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by the chloroplast coupling factor CF 1

Abstract

The coupling factor CF1 is a catalytic part of chloroplast ATP synthase which is exposed to stroma whose viscosity is many-fold higher than that of reaction mixtures commonly used to measure kinetics of CF1-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. This study is focused on the effect of medium viscosity modulated by sucrose or bovine serum albumin (BSA) on kinetics of Ca2+- and Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis by CF1. These agents were shown to reduce the maximal rate of Ca2+-dependent ATPase without changing the apparent Michaelis constant (К m), thus supporting the hypothesis on viscosity dependence of CF1 activity. For the sulfite- and ethanol-stimulated Mg2+-dependent reaction, the presence of sucrose increased К m without changing the maximal rate that is many-fold as high as that of Ca2+-dependent hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction was shown to be stimulated by low concentrations of BSA and inhibited by its higher concentrations, with the increasing maximal reaction rate estimated by extrapolation. Sucrose- or BSA-induced inhibition of the Mg2+-dependent ATPase reaction is believed to result from diffusion-caused deceleration, while its BSA-induced stimulation is probably caused by optimization of the enzyme structure. Molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of viscosity are discussed. Taking into account high protein concentrations in the chloroplast stroma, it was suggested that kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis, and probably those of ATP synthesis in vivo as well, must be quite different from measurements taken at a viscosity level close to that of water.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Natural isoforms of the Photosystem II D1 subunit differ in photoassembly efficiency of the water-oxidizing complex

Abstract

Oxygenic photosynthesis efficiency at increasing solar flux is limited by light-induced damage (photoinhibition) of Photosystem II (PSII), primarily targeting the D1 reaction center subunit. Some cyanobacteria contain two natural isoforms of D1 that function better under low light (D1:1) or high light (D1:2). Herein, rates and yields of photoassembly of the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) from the free inorganic cofactors (Mn2+, Ca2+, water, electron acceptor) and apo-WOC-PSII are shown to differ significantly: D1:1 apo-WOC-PSII exhibits a 2.3-fold faster rate-limiting step of photoassembly and up to seven-fold faster rate to the first light-stable Mn3+ intermediate, IM1*, but with a much higher rate of photoinhibition than D1:2. Conversely, D1:2 apo-WOC-PSII assembles slower but has up to seven-fold higher yield, achieved by a higher quantum yield of charge separation and slower photoinhibition rate. These results confirm and extend previous observations of the two holoenzymes: D1:2-PSII has a greater quantum yield of primary charge separation, faster [P680 + Q A ] charge recombination and less photoinhibition that results in a slower rate and higher yield of photoassembly of its apo-WOC-PSII complex. In contrast, D1:1-PSII has a lower quantum yield of primary charge separation, a slower [P680 + Q A ] charge recombination rate, and faster photoinhibition that together result in higher rate but lower yield of photoassembly at higher light intensities. Cyanobacterial PSII reaction centers that contain the high- and low-light D1 isoforms can tailor performance to optimize photosynthesis at varying light conditions, with similar consequences on their photoassembly kinetics and yield. These different efficiencies of photoassembly versus photoinhibition impose differential costs for biosynthesis as a function of light intensity.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Deconvolution of ferredoxin, plastocyanin, and P700 transmittance changes in intact leaves with a new type of kinetic LED array spectrophotometer

Abstract

A newly developed compact measuring system for assessment of transmittance changes in the near-infrared spectral region is described; it allows deconvolution of redox changes due to ferredoxin (Fd), P700, and plastocyanin (PC) in intact leaves. In addition, it can also simultaneously measure chlorophyll fluorescence. The major opto-electronic components as well as the principles of data acquisition and signal deconvolution are outlined. Four original pulse-modulated dual-wavelength difference signals are measured (785–840 nm, 810–870 nm, 870–970 nm, and 795–970 nm). Deconvolution is based on specific spectral information presented graphically in the form of ‘Differential Model Plots’ (DMP) of Fd, P700, and PC that are derived empirically from selective changes of these three components under appropriately chosen physiological conditions. Whereas information on maximal changes of Fd is obtained upon illumination after dark-acclimation, maximal changes of P700 and PC can be readily induced by saturating light pulses in the presence of far-red light. Using the information of DMP and maximal changes, the new measuring system enables on-line deconvolution of Fd, P700, and PC. The performance of the new device is demonstrated by some examples of practical applications, including fast measurements of flash relaxation kinetics and of the Fd, P700, and PC changes paralleling the polyphasic fluorescence rise upon application of a 300-ms pulse of saturating light.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Vallabhaneni Sita Rama Das, 1933–2010: teacher and mentor

Abstract

We present here the life and research of V. S. Rama Das, a distinguished Indian botanist who specialized in photosynthesis. He was the first to purify chloroplasts that were free of mitochondrial contamination. He then studied C4, C3–C4 intermediate and CAM pathways, as well as their taxonomic distribution in tropical climates. His most valuable legacy is that he, as a philosopher, inspired and guided many students to pursue their research career in India. Also see Narayana and Pullaiah (Eminent Indian Botanists: Past and present: Biographies and contributions, pp 394–401, 2010) and Raghavendra and Reddy (Curr Sci 101:798–799, 2011) for further information on Rama Das.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Investigation of the S 1 /ICT equilibrium in fucoxanthin by ultrafast pump–dump–probe and femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy

Abstract

Time-resolved multi-pulse spectroscopic methods—pump–dump–probe (PDP) and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy—were used to investigate the excited state photodynamics of the carbonyl group containing carotenoid fucoxanthin (FX). PDP experiments show that S1 and ICT states in FX are strongly coupled and that the interstate equilibrium is rapidly (<5 ps) reestablished after one of the interacting states is deliberately depopulated. Femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering experiments indicate that S1 and ICT are vibrationally distinct species. Identification of the FSRS modes on the S1 and ICT potential energy surfaces allows us to predict a possible coupling channel for the state interaction.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Hartmut Lichtenthaler: an authority on chloroplast structure and isoprenoid biochemistry

Abstract

We pay tribute to Hartmut Lichtenthaler for making important contributions to the field of photosynthesis research. He was recently recognized for ground-breaking discoveries in chloroplast structure and isoprenoid biochemistry by the Rebeiz Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR; http://vlpbp.org/), receiving a 2014 Lifetime Achievement Award for Photosynthesis. The ceremony, held in Champaign, Illinois, was attended by many prominent researchers in the photosynthesis field. We provide below a brief note on his education, and then describe some of the areas in which Hartmut Lichtenthaler has been a pioneer.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation

Abstract

Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.


Datum: 01.05.2016


High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop

Abstract

Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin–Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.


Datum: 01.05.2016


Remembering David B. Knaff (1941–2016)

Abstract

David Knaff began his scientific career in the Department of Cell Physiology at the University of California, Berkeley. At Berkeley, he worked on chloroplast electron carriers such as the cytochromes and plastocyanin and applied redox potentiometry to characterize these carriers in situ. He moved to Texas Tech University where he made major contributions in the study of ferredoxin-mediated reactions with chloroplast enzymes, most notably nitrite reductase.


Datum: 29.04.2016


The role of O 2 as an electron acceptor alternative to CO 2 in photosynthesis of the common marine angiosperm Zostera marina L.

Abstract

This study investigates the role of O2 as an electron acceptor alternative to CO2 in photosynthesis of the common marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. Electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of Z. marina were measured under saturating irradiance in synthetic seawater containing 2.2 mM DIC and no DIC with different O2 levels (air-equilibrated levels, 3 % of air equilibrium and restored air-equilibrated levels). Lowering O2 did not affect ETR when DIC was provided, while it caused a decrease in ETR and an increase in NPQ in DIC-free media, indicating that O2 acted as an alternative electron acceptor under low DIC. The ETR and NPQ as a function of irradiance were subsequently assessed in synthetic seawater containing (1) 2.2 mM DIC, air-equilibrated O2; (2) saturating CO2, no O2; and (3) no DIC, air-equilibrated O2. These treatments were combined with glycolaldehyde pre-incubation. Glycolaldehyde caused a marked decrease in ETR in DIC-free medium, indicating significant electron flow supported by photorespiration. Combining glycolaldehyde with O2 depletion completely suppressed ETR suggesting the operation of the Mehler reaction, a possibility supported by the photosynthesis-dependent superoxide production. However, no notable effect of suppressing the Mehler reaction on NPQ was observed. It is concluded that during DIC-limiting conditions, such as those frequently occurring in the habitats of Z. marina, captured light energy exceeds what is utilised for the assimilation of available carbon, and photorespiration is a major alternative electron acceptor, while the contribution of the Mehler reaction is minor.


Datum: 28.04.2016


Structural modeling of the phycobilisome core and its association with the photosystems

Abstract

The phycobilisome (PBS) is a major light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria and red algae. To obtain the detailed structure of the hemidiscoidal PBS core composed of allophycocyanin (APC) and minor polypeptide components, we analyzed all nine available 3D structures of APCs from different photosynthetic species and found several variants of crystal packing that potentially correspond to PBS core organization. Combination of face-to-face APC trimer crystal packing with back-to-back APC hexamer packing suggests two variants of the tricylindrical PBS core. To choose one of these structures, a computational model of the PBS core complex and photosystem II (PSII) dimer with minimized distance between the terminal PBS emitters and neighboring antenna chlorophylls was built. In the selected model, the distance between two types of pigments does not exceed 37 Å corresponding to the Förster mechanism of energy transfer. We also propose a model of PBS and photosystem I (PSI) monomer interaction showing a possibility of supercomplex formation and direct energy transfer from the PBS to PSI.


Datum: 27.04.2016


Photorespiration provides the chance of cyclic electron flow to operate for the redox-regulation of P700 in photosynthetic electron transport system of sunflower leaves

Abstract

To elucidate the molecular mechanism to oxidize the reaction center chlorophyll, P700, in PSI, we researched the effects of partial pressure of O2 (pO2) on photosynthetic characteristic parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. Under low CO2 conditions, the oxidation of P700 was stimulated; however the decrease in pO2 suppressed its oxidation. Electron fluxes in PSII [Y(II)] and PSI [Y(I)] showed pO2-dependence at low CO2 conditions. H+-consumption rate, estimated from Y(II) and CO2-fixation/photorespiration rates (JgH+), showed the positive curvature relationship with the dissipation rate of electrochromic shift signal (V H + ), which indicates H+-efflux rate from lumen to stroma in chloroplasts. Therefore, these electron fluxes contained, besides CO2-fixation/photorespiration-dependent electron fluxes, non-H+-consumption electron fluxes including Mehler-ascorbate peroxidase (MAP)-pathway. Y(I) that was larger than Y(II) surely implies the functioning of cyclic electron flow (CEF). Both MAP-pathway and CEF were suppressed at lower pO2, with plastoquinone-pool reduced. That is, photorespiration prepares the redox-poise of photosynthetic electron transport system for CEF activity as an electron sink. Excess Y(II), [ΔY(II)] giving the curvature relationship with V H + , and excess Y(I) [ΔCEF] giving the difference between Y(I) and Y(II) were used as an indicator of MAP-pathway and CEF activity, respectively. Although ΔY(II) was negligible and did not show positive relationship to the oxidation-state of P700, ΔCEF showed positive linear relationship to the oxidation-state of P700. These facts indicate that CEF cooperatively with photorespiration regulates the redox-state of P700 to suppress the over-reduction in PSI under environmental stress conditions.


Datum: 26.04.2016


Molecular studies on structural changes and oligomerisation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase associated with the pH-dependent activation

Abstract

Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) is a conditionally soluble enzyme located in the thylakoid lumen and catalyses the conversion of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin, which are located in the thylakoid membrane. These reactions occur when the plant or algae are exposed to saturating light and the zeaxanthin formed is involved in the process of non-photochemical quenching that protects the photosynthetic machinery during stress. Oversaturation by light results in a reduction of the pH inside the thylakoids, which in turn activates VDE and the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin. To elucidate the structural events responsible for the pH-dependent activation of VDE, full length and truncated forms of VDE were studied at different pH using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, crosslinking and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). CD spectroscopy showed the formation of α-helical coiled-coil structure, localised in the C-terminal domain. Chemical crosslinking of VDE showed that oligomers were formed at low pH, and suggested that the position of the N-terminal domain is located near the opening of lipocalin-like barrel, where violaxanthin has been predicted to bind. SAXS was used to generate models of monomeric VDE at high pH and also a presumably dimeric structure of VDE at low pH. For the dimer, the best fit suggests that the interaction is dominated by one of the domains, preferably the C-terminal domain due to the lost ability to oligomerise at low pH, shown in earlier studies, and the predicted formation of coiled-coil structure.


Datum: 26.04.2016


The effect of lanthanides on photosynthesis, growth, and chlorophyll profile of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda

Abstract

Lanthanides (La, Gd, Nd, Ce) accumulated in the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda but their intracellular localizations were distinctly different: lanthanum and gadolinium were localized in cytoplasm, while neodymium and cerium were in the chloroplast. The effect of lanthanum and neodymium, as representatives of these two groups, on growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate at different light intensities was studied. At the lowest light intensity used (50 µmol photons m−2 s−1), in the presence of lanthanides (Nd), growth was enhanced by as much as 36 % over lanthanide free control, and the photosynthetic rate increased by up to 300 %. At high light intensities (238, 460, and 750 µmol photons m−2 s−1), photosynthetic rate increased markedly, but there was no significant difference between rates in the presence or absence of lanthanides. However, growth, measured as a percentage of dry weight, if compared with lanthanide free control, increased at all light intensities (31, 39, and 20 %, respectively). The total amount of chlorophyll after lanthanide treatment increased by up to 21 % relative to the control culture, mainly due to an increase in the level of chlorophyll b. Addition of lanthanides caused a change in the chlorophyll a/b ratio from 4.583 in control cultivation, to 1.05. Possible mechanisms of lanthanide-induced photosynthetic change, alterations in photosynthetic structures, and increases in growth are discussed and compared with findings in higher plants. The hypothesis that the lanthanide effect could be due to formation of lanthanide-pheophytins was not confirmed as lanthanide pheophytins were not found in D. quadricauda. Furthermore, we have shown that the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of magnesium, namely 25Mg and 26Mg, into chlorophyll during photosynthesis that occurred in controls was diminished in the presence of lanthanides.


Datum: 25.04.2016


In photosynthesis, oxygen comes from water: from a 1787 book for women by Monsieur De Fourcroy

Abstract

It is now well established that the source of oxygen in photosynthesis is water. The earliest suggestion previously known to us had come from René Bernard Wurmser (1930). Here, we highlight an earlier report by Monsieur De Fourcroy (1787), who had already discussed the broad outlines of such a hypothesis in a book on Chemistry written for women. We present here a free translation of a passage from this book, with the original text in French as an Appendix.


Datum: 22.04.2016


The efficiency of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching by cation radicals in photosystem II reaction centers

Abstract

In a direct experiment, the rate constants of photochemical k p and non-photochemical k p + quenching of the chlorophyll fluorescence have been determined in spinach photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments, oxygen-evolving PS II core, as well as manganese-depleted PS II particles using pulse fluorimetry. In the dark-adapted reaction center(s) (RC), the fluorescence decay kinetics of the antenna were measured at low-intensity picosecond pulsed excitation. To create a “closed” P680+Q A state, RCs were illuminated by high-intensity actinic flash 8 ns prior to the measuring flash. The obtained data were approximated by the sum of two decaying exponents. It was found that the antennae fluorescence quenching efficiency by the oxidized photoactive pigment of RC P680+ was about 1.5 times higher than that of the neutral P680 state. These results were confirmed by a single-photon counting technique, which allowed to resolve the additional slow component of the fluorescence decay. Slow component was assigned to the charge recombination of P680+Pheo in PS II RC. Thus, for the first time, the ratio k p + /k p ≅ 1.5 was found directly. The mechanism of the higher efficiency of non-photochemical quenching comparing to photochemical quenching is discussed.


Datum: 13.04.2016


The siderophilic cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. strain JSC-1 acclimates to iron starvation by expressing multiple isiA -family genes

Abstract

In the evolution of different cyanobacteria performing oxygenic photosynthesis, the core complexes of the two photosystems were highly conserved. However, cyanobacteria exhibit significant diversification in their light-harvesting complexes and have flexible regulatory mechanisms to acclimate to changes in their growth environments. In the siderophilic, filamentous cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. strain JSC-1, five different isiA-family genes occur in two gene clusters. During acclimation to Fe limitation, relative transcript levels for more than 600 genes increased more than twofold. Relative transcript levels were ~250 to 300 times higher for the isiA1 gene cluster (isiA1-isiB-isiC), and ~440- to 540-fold for the isiA2-isiA3-isiA4-cpcG2-isiA5 gene cluster after 48 h of iron starvation. Chl-protein complexes were isolated and further purified from cells grown under Fe-replete and Fe-depleted conditions. A single class of particles, trimeric PSI, was identified by image analysis of electron micrographs of negatively stained PSI complexes from Fe-replete cells. However, three major classes of particles were observed for the Chl-protein supercomplexes from cells grown under iron starvation conditions. Based on LC–MS–MS analyses, the five IsiA-family proteins were found in the largest supercomplexes together with core components of the two photosystems; however, IsiA5 was not present in complexes in which only the core subunits of PSI were detected. IsiA5 belongs to the same clade as PcbC proteins in a phylogenetic classification, and it is proposed that IsiA5 is most likely involved in supercomplexes containing PSII dimers. IsiA4, which is a fusion of an IsiA domain and a C-terminal PsaL domain, was found together with IsiA1, IsiA2, and IsiA3 in complexes with monomeric PSI. The data indicate that horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication, and divergence have played important roles in the adaptive evolution of this cyanobacterium to iron starvation conditions.


Datum: 12.04.2016


Crystal structure analysis of C-phycoerythrin from marine cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

Abstract

The role of unique sequence features of C-phycoerythrin, isolated from Phormidium sp. A09DM, has been investigated by crystallographic studies. Two conserved indels (i.e. inserts or deletions) are found in the β-subunit of Phormidium phycoerythrin that are distinctive characteristics of large number of cyanobacterial sequences. The identified signatures are a two-residue deletion from position 21 and a nine-residue insertion at position 146. Crystals of Phormidium phycoerythrin were obtained at pH values of 5 and 8.5, and structures have been resolved to high precision at 1.95 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. In both the structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits assemble as hexamers. The 7-residue insertion at position 146 significantly reduces solvent exposure of π-conjugated A–C rings of a phycoerythrobilin (PEB) chromophore, and can influence energy absorption and energy transfer characteristics. The structural analyses (with 12-fold redundancy) suggest that protein micro-environment alone dictates the conformation of bound chromophores. The low- and high-energy absorbing chromophores are identified based on A–B ring coplanarity. The spatial distribution of these is found to be similar to that observed in R-phycoerythrin, suggesting the direction of energy transfer from outer-surface of hexamer to inner-hollow cavity in the Phormidium protein. The crystal structures also reveal that a commonly observed Hydrogen-bonding network in phycobiliproteins, involving chromophore bound to α-subunit and amino acid at position 73 of β-subunit, may not be essential for structural and functional integrity of C-phycoerythrin orthologs. In solution, the protein displays slight red shift and decrease in fluorescence emission at acidic pH. The mechanism for which may be static and correlates with the proximity of +ve electric field of Arg148 to the C-ring of a PEB chromophore.


Datum: 11.04.2016






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